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Author: 

Scott 



3 



Walter Dill 



Title: 

Influencing men in 

business 

Place: 

New York 

Date: 

1919 



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Scott, Walter DiU, 1869- 

^^Iiifluencmg men in Imsinoss; tlie psychology of argii- 
^nent and suggestion, by Walter Dill Scott ... 2d ed. 
New York, The Konald press company, 1910. 1919 • 

vii p., 1 1., 11-186 p. iiicl. plates. 20"'". [$1.00 ] 



1. Advertising. 2. lUisine.ss. ,3. Salesmen and salesmanship. I. Title. 



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School of Business 



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INFLUENCING MEN 
IN BUSINESS 



THE PSYCHOLOGY 



OF 



ARGUMENT AND SUGGESTION 



BY 

WALTER DILL SCOTT, Ph. D. 

Director of Bwreau of Salesmanship Researcht Carnegie Institute 
of Technology ; Director of the Psychological lAiboratory, North- 
western University; President of National Association of Adver- 
tising Teachers; Author of ^'Increasing Human Efficiency in 
Bu»ine$s^^* ^'Psychology of Advertising^^* ^'Psychology of PiLblic 
Speaking,'* and *' Theory of Advertising** 



SECOND EDITION 

(Third Printing) 



NEW YORK 
THE RONALD PRESS COMPANY 

1919 



^''» 



-2 -^ 4^*11-^ 
Copyright 1911 



BY 



Thb Ronald Press Company 



Copyright 1916 

. BY 

The Ronald Press Company 



AU Rights Reserved 




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r/»^ aw^/ior respectfully dedicates this contribution to the 

psychology of business to the 

YOUNG BUSINESS MAN 

whose interest is in influencing men rather than in han- 
dling things; nnd who is studying to make his 
arguments more convincing and his 
suggestions more coercive. 



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Preface to Second Edition 



In this second edition the chapters have been 
largely rewritten. Old material has been 
omitted where such omission seemed desirable, 
and all the chapters have been amplified by the 
addition of new material. This revision was 
necessary because of the very rapid advance in 
the science of applied psychology. 

Since the issuance of the first edition of this 
work various contributions on Argumentation 
and Suggestion have appeared in print, but the 
most notable is that of Professor Hollingworth 
in his book, "Advertising and Selling.'' 

Walter Dill Scott. 

Evanston, Illinois, 
August 15, 19 1 6. 



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Page 
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39 



CONTENTS 

Chapter 

^ I Introductory . . . . 

^ II An Analysis of Deliberation- . 

III An Analysis of Suggestion . 

IV What Is Your Method of Deciding 
Questions and Reaching Conclu- 
sions? 

Z' V When to Use Arguments in In- 
fluencing Men .... 

VI When to Use Suggestions in In- 
fluencing Men . . . .101 
VII i Making Arguments Effective . 115 
VIII Making Suggestions Effective . 155 



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CHAPTER I 
INTRODUCTORY 



OUTLINE 



I. Business Success is Largely Dependent upon 

Ability to Influence Men 
II. To Explain How Men are Influenced is a Problem 
for Psychology 

III. Typical Business Problems for Psychological 

Solution 

IV. Appeals to Reason 

V. Suggestion is a More Subtle Force than Reason 
VI. All Methods of Influencing Men may be Classified 
either as Argument or as Suggestion 



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CHAPTER I 
INTRODUCTORY 

L Business Success is Largely Dependent 
UPON Ability to Influence Men 

During the last few decades the business 
world has brought about a complete revolution 
in the methods of manufacturing, distributing, 
and selling goods. That the revolution has 
been beneficial and important no business man 
will deny. But however important these things 
are, the business man realizes that his most 
pressing problem is methods of influencing men 
rather than the handling of things. 

The young man looking forward to a career •/ 
sees that the man who has unusual ability in 
handling men is sure to attain the position of 
superintendent or manager; but that the man 
who has great cunning in handling material 
things is not thereby assured of a position above 
that of a skilled mechanic. 

II. To Explain How Men are Influenced 
is a Problem for Psychology 

The business world is now in possession of 
many thoroughly established laws and principles 

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12 Influencing Men in Business 

for the manufacture of goods and their preser- 
vation and transportation ; for the best utiliza- 
tion of tools and equipment; for the generation 
of power, and for numerous processes con- 
nected with the handling of material things. 
The physical sciences have made their contribu- 
tions, and the business world profiting thereby 
has been enabled to bring about this revolu- 
tion. 

The business world has not been able to 
revolutionize its methods of handling and in- 
fluencing men. The young man preparing for 
his future career has not been able to secure 
adequate instruction in methods of controlling 
men. He could enter a technical school and 
be assured of securing practical instruction in 
dealing with any desired class of material 
things. Just as there can be no technical 
schools except as they are founded upon the 
sciences, so there can be no adequate instruction 
in methods of influencing men unless it is 
founded upon psychology — the particular 
science which deals with the thoughts and acts 
of men. 

Although the science of psychology is not a 
completed science, and even though its incom- 
pleteness is especially apparent in some particu- 



Introductory 13 

lars having special bearing upon the problems 
of business, yet its great fundamental principles 
are well worked out and are of prime Impor- 
tance. 

III. Typical Business Problems for Psy- 

CHOLOGICAL SOLUTION 

The purpose of the present work is to set 
forth certain established facts and principles of 
psychology which have a most direct and prac- 
tical bearing upon the problem of influencing 
men under conditions existing in the business 
world. Typical examples of definite business 
V problems for psychological solution are such as 
the following: 

1. How can I Induce my employees to in- 
crease the quantity and Improve the quality of 
their work ? 

2. How can I induce particular men to enter 
my employ? 

3. How can I sell you my line of goods by 
personal appeal ? 

4. How can I induce you to purchase this 
same line of goods If I confine my selling plan 
to printed advertising? 



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14 Influencing Men in Business 

IV. Appeals to Reason 

There are business men who have been 
eminently successful in handling men, and who 
because of their successes assert that our four 
typical problems have been definitely solved. 
^They assert that their success is due to the fact 
that they respect the reasoning power of men. 
They secure improved service from employees 
by showing them the advantages of such im- 
provement. They rely upon the argument that 
improved service leads to increased wages or 
promotion. They secure the services of new 
men by presenting the advantages of the prof- 
fered position In a logical manner. In selling 
goods they analyze "tlielr propositions to find 
the strongest arguments in favor of the goods 
and then the arguments are arranged in a logi- 
cal and climactic order. In preparing copy for 
an advertisement they use the "reason-why" 
method and attempt to make the reader feel 
that there is "a reason why." 

V. Suggestion is a More Subtle Force 
THAN Reason 

There Is another group of men, fully as suc- 
cessful, who assure us that their successes in 



Introductory i r 

handling men are due to a force far more subtle 
than reasoning. They grant the possibility of 
reasoning with men, and even concede that on 
paper It seems the wisest thing to do. In prac- 
tice, however, they have but little confidence In 
argumentation, for they believe that men In the 
business world do not frequently carry out 
elaborate processes of reasoning. In securing 
increased efficiency from employees these suc- 
cessful managers of men claim that they have 
been successful because they have used sugges- 
tion^ rather than argument; because they have 
appealed to "the subconscious self" rather than 
to the Intellect; because they have thus secured 
Immediate action rather than deliberation. 
They have employed suggestion rather than 
argumentation not only for Influencing em- 
ployees but also for securing the services of 
new men, for selling by personal appeal, and 
for selling by advertising. 

VI. All Methods of Influencing Men 
. MAY, be Classified either as Argu- 
ment OR AS Suggestion 

Since business success Is largely dependent 
upon ability to Influence men, and since all 




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1 6 Influencing Men in Business 

methods of exerting such influence may be 
classified under our two headings of Argument 
and Suggestion, it is of very great importance 
that we should be in a position to judge cor- 
rectly the contention of the two classes of suc- 
cessful men as cited above — the one advocating 
argument (reason) and the other suggestion. 
To enable us to pass judgment wisely upon the 
respective claims we must understand exactly 
what are the results secured by argument and 
the results secured by suggestion. Our point 
of view must be that of the man who is being 
influenced. What mental processes normally 
take place as a result of argument (the pre- 
sentation of arguments) and what mental 
processes normally result from presenting sug- 
gestions? These questions must be answered 
before we are in a position to decide whether 
argument or suggestion is the better foundation 
for the methods of influencing men. 



CHAPTER II 
AN ANALYSIS OF DELIBERATION 



OUTLINE 

Deliberation Results from the Presenting of Argu- 
ments or Reasons 
A typical Act of Deliberation Consists of: 

I. An Idea of Two or More Diverse Things Only 
One of Which May be Chosen 
II. An Idea of the Steps Necessary to Secure the 
Things 

III. A Feeling of Value Attaching to Each of the 

Things 

IV. A Comparison of Relative Values 
V. A Conviction and Execution 




11 . 



CHAPTER II 



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AN ANALYSIS OF DELIBERATION 

Deliberation Results from the Present- 
ing Arguments or Reasons* 

• 

In the following analysis of the results of an 
argument it is assumed that the argument is 
good and that the man being appealed to is 
caused to consider or to deliberate. We shall 
try to discover what is meant by such expres- 
sions as: 

**What do I do when I am deliberating?** 
''What do you do when you deliberate?" 
To make the analysis concrete and definite 
and to see its bearings upon our four typical 
problems the questions may be put in this form : 
What do you do — 

.1. When you deliberate as to whether you 
shall change your method of work? 

2. When you are deliberating as to whether 
you shall accept or reject a* proffered change in 
position? 

3. When you are deliberating as to whether 
you shall purchase or reject the goods offered 
by a salesman? 

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20 Influencing Men in Business 

4. When you are debating as to whether you 
shall respond to an advertisement? 

A Typical Act of Deliberation Consists 
OF: 

I. An Idea of Two or More Diverse 
Things Only One of Which May be 
Chosen 

If I am attempting to induce you to change 
your method of work, you deliberate only if 
you consider what I propose, and if my proposi- 
tion is in only partial possession of your mind — 
when your thought of my proposition is not 
free from your thought of your method of 
working; when you have in mind first the one 
method and then the other, and even when you 
are thinking of the one, you are aware that the 
other is still to be thought of. First the new 
and then the habitual method of work occupies 
the focus of attention, but at no time does either 
secure the full undivided attention. As soon as 
you have settled on one alternative and 
thoroughly banished the other your delibera- 
tion has ceased. 

If I am attempting to induce you to leave 
your present position and to accept a position 



An Analysis of Deliberation 



21 



with me, you may be said to deliberate upon 
the proposition if you seriously consider it In 
contrast to your present position. During the 
deliberation the alternatives successively enter 
the focus of attention. Reasons for retaining 
the old position and reasons for accepting the 
new keep passing through your mind. You feel 
all the time that the problem Is not solved and 
that before you finish you are again to think of 
the alternative parti'ally banished from thought. 
If I am a salesman and attempt to sell you 
my particular line of goods you do deliberate 
upon the purchase If you think, of the goods as 
possible purchases but have a feeling that other 
goods must at. least be considered. The other 
goods may never be fully in your consciousness 
but their presence must at least be sufficient to 
make you feel that the purchase of other goods 
is possible and worthy of consideration. My 
line of goods does not Impress you as the only 
thing to be considered. In considering them 
you have a feeling that the evidence Is not all 
in, and so you are led to consider, more or less 
definitely, competing lines of goods or to con- 
sider the advisability of not purchasing. 

When you read an advertisement and de- 
liberate as to whether you shall purchase the 



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22 Influencing Men in Business 

goods or not, the advertisement falls to occupy 
your complete attention. You compare the 
goods advertised with other similar goods, or 
you compare purchasing with not purchasing at 
all. The competing thoughts may for a time 
practically banish the advertisement from your 
mind. In some cases the advertisement seems 
to hold the attention continuously, but all the 
time you realize that there are other possible 
goods and so you consider the advertised goods 
in their relationship to the other and perhaps 
better known goods. You are said to have an 
idea of two or more acts or ends even though 
one only is clear, and the other present only to 
the extent of making you aware that there is 
another to which you could turn your attention 
if necessary. 

A Typical Act of Deliberation Consists 
OF: 

II. An Idea of the Steps Necessary to 
Secure the Things 

I shall purchase either a new encyclopedia or 
a new typewriter. I can not afford to purchase 
both at this time. I am deliberating as to which 
would be more useful. I have tried to get an 



An Analysis of Deliberation 23 

adequate idea of each but I find that my ideas 
are not merely of encyclopedia and typewriter, 
but rather of myself-securing-and-possessing- 
the-encyclopedia, and of myself-securing-and- 
possessing-the-typewriter. I do not conceive of 
these possible purchases as things in the ab- 
stract but myself as purchasing them is an essen- 
tial part of my deliberation. In imagination I 
go down to the book-store and select the 
volumes; in imagination I go to the telephone 
and ask to have the typewriter sent up on ap- 
proval. In imagination I take the steps neces- 
sary to secure the things. This taking of the 
necessary steps is an important part in delibera-/ 
tion. In anticipation I try out the thing pro- 
posed. 

If I am thoroughly convinced that I want a 
thing I will take the trouble to find out what 
steps are necessary to secure it. If, however, it 
was a matter of but little difference which of 
two purchases I should make, I would make the 
one that caused me the least thought. If of two 
equally desirable advertised commodities one 
gave me full instructions as to how I should 
place my order and the other left me to think it 
out, I should take the line of least resistance 
and order the one which gave the instructions. 



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24 Influencing Men in Business 

FuU directions as to the necessary steps for 
placing the order cause me to form an image of 
myself as ordering. This projection of myself 
in imagination into the future and into the acts 
necessary for placing the order greatly increases 
the chances that I shall respond favorably to 
the appeal. 

In deliberation the idea of the necessary 
steps may be very vague and symbolic but in 
some form it is undoubtedly present. In per- 
suading men it is wisejtomake this idca"Q"f the 
il^£^?sary steps^aTa^ar and distinct as j^sible 
because of the vcry^important part it plays in 
deliberation. The neglec^of this point has 
weakened many attempts to^Tniruence mea, 

A Typical Act of Deliberation Consists 

OF: 

HI. A Feeling of Value Attaching to 
Each of the Things 

Not only are we capable of having knowledge 
about possible objects of choice, but these ends 
thrill us more or less with pleasure or dis- 
pleasure. The ^^thriir' may be very mild but 
it IS an essential part of an act of deliberation. 
We are creatures with feelings, and unless a 



An Analysis of Deliberation 25 

thing awakens this feeling of value it is dropped 
from consideration. 

We deliberate over a thing proposed only so 
long as it appears to us to be 'Vorth while"; 
and that it may be worth while it must appeal 
directly or indirectly to our fundamental in- 
stincts or to our acquired tendencies to action. 
It must be in line with our ambitions and fixed 
purposes. It must make an appeal having some * 
relationship to human sentiment and to human 
emotions. It must seem to advance our inter- 
ests in some way. 

If a series of arguments succeeds merely in 
convincing us that we ought to perform a cer- 
tain act but does not make that act seem valu- 
able, and thus create a desire to perform the 
act, the arguments have not been successful. 

If I propose that you change your method of 
work the proposed change will not be consid- 
ered by you unless, to a degree, it awakens 
hope, creates enthusiasm, or appeals to you as 
being worth while. It must in some way make 
its appeal to human interest and human senti- 
ment. 

If I propose that you accept a proffered posi- 
tion you will not consider the matter unless the 
new position is so presented that it appeals to 



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Influencing Men in Business 



your self-interest—to your HpqiV. / 

tlon. The salesman's tal s "e, ^'''"" 

sideration if it seem! Z ff ''°"' '°"' 

of the reader a de.lr. f '""•'* '" 'he mind 
obre,-!- Tuu t . °'' '''= possession of the 
object. Although deliberation is a iorical 
process ,t ,s continued only so long as the S 
being considered continue to L'kt' t^ 

A Typ,„i Act of D.uberation Consists 
IV. A Comparison of Relative Values 

wh!AerTsh' >/"'' ''"" '''"^""ing as to 
Whether I should secure my recreation from 

golf or from tennis. I found it impracticable to 
play both. When I tried to "think it ot r " mv 
difficulty was in finding any satisf acto^ 'bal 
for comparison. Golf is more expensive than 
tenn,s, but has social features that are not pos 
ble m tennis. Golf consumes more time than 
tenms but ,s not so exhausting. Golf is more in 
vogue ,„st now than tennis but afford lL7e 1 
pleasure. Golf can be played more monAs o 
the year but tennis can be played when I have 



An Analysis of Deliberation 



7 



but a half hour for recreation. Most of my 
friends play golf but I can play tennis better 
than golf. None of these classifications seemed 
satisfactory, but I find that I have settled the 
matter by classifying the two forms of recrea- 
tion according to the efficiency standard, i.e., 
the production per minute. Tennis gives more 
exercise per minute than golf. The double 
standard of economy of time and of the amount 
of exercise secured, made it possible for me to 
decide in favor of tennis. 

This difficulty of classification is not at all 
exceptional as it is more or less characteristic of 
the act of comparison as carried out in delibera- 
tion. The real difficulty lies in establishing a 
standard by which a choice may be made among 
several courses of action. Doubtless these acts 
of classification and comparison are sometimes 
carried out rapidly and without special con- 
scious attention; but in a typical act of delibera- 
tion they are performed as acts of volition, of 
which we are distinctly aware at the moment of 
making the comparison. 

When you listen to my arguments in favor of 
my merchandise and are led to deliberate upon 
the purchase, you consciously bring together the 
advantages or values of my goods in compari- 



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Influencing Men in Business 



son with some competing goods and noc .u 
judgment of more valuable nr / ^ ' ^* 
upon them. You not onlv'th'^:; ' "'^j 
then of the ofh^r « r ^ • °^ °"^ and 

other, but you tl 'nk of thT " ^f ^'°" ^° ^^^ 
.standing in'the par^'^^^^^^^^^^^^^ - 

'ng a greater or a less value TT 1^ t ^^"^ 
surh -, ^^.^ • value. Unless there i<! 

such a comparison and unless if .'« m« , 

a conscious process, you Tan 1? I 7 ""^ ^"' 
deliberated at all. ^ ^' '^^'^ ^° ^^^^ 

A TmcAL Act op Deliberation Consists 
V. A Conviction and Execution 

Iibe?a:il\:ZT?- ^" ^^^^-^^^ -d be- 
cause thTs ast s^^ ( " "'"'^ '^^'"P^^^^^ be. 

isnotca:r!:"rfctf%^tr"^^^^ 

-nts made to influenc/^tlst-^^^^ 

the arguments will cau«!^ fh« 7 ' ^' 

de.ib„a.e bu. wH. LtbTa dt uT.r .o' « r tb" ^ 
final and essential step. ""^^ ^^^ 

When the mind Da«!«^c f-^ 



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An Analysis of Deliberation 29 

perfect syllogism consists of three parts — the 
major premise, the minor premise, and the con- 
clusion. Thus : 

All metals conduct electricity. 

Aluminum is a metal. 

Therefore aluminum will conduct electricity. 

*'A11 metals conduct electricity," is the major 
premise. "Aluminum is a metal," is the minor 
premise. "Therefore aluminum will conduct 
electricity," is the conclusion. After we have 
thought the major premise, and after we have 
classified aluminum as a metal, we are abso- 
lutely compelled to pass on to the conclusion 
that aluminum will conduct electricity. 

Frequently arguments are put into the form 
of an implied syllogism. Such arguments may 
readily be expanded into the form of the com- 
plete syllogism. Thus, "He ought to be sup- 
ported by the state for he is an old soldier," is 
an abbreviation of — 

All old soldiers should be supported by the 

state. 
This man is an old soldier. 
Therefore he should be supported by the 

state. 

The life insurance agent occasionally puts his 



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Influencing Men in Business 



arguments Into the form of .n • r ^ 

gism; thus, -You ouahfTn ?V ""^^'"^ ^^"o- 

cause you; wife neet .? " °"' ' P°^'^y ^e- 

■' "' *^ife needs the orofprfmr. " t-i • 
implies the syllogism— P^^^e^t'on. This 

Takm. out a pCky ,, , p„,,^,„„ ^_^^ ^^^ 
Therefore you ought to take out a poMcy. 

"tate would be a profitable i„ve't;„e„Tr • "' 

Th^^^real estate is i„ a growing part of the 
Therefore it is a profitable investment. 

«rengthe„ed, if it i, Jjid buV ,h f ,1"'""'' 
made more apparent iffti. ■ ' '"""^ « 

The attempt to compel assenf k 
arguments in a sylloll T ^ P^^^^^ting 

throw the hearer into f H^ "" ^' ^''^^' ^o 

earer mto a defensive attitude. The 



An Analysis of Deliberation 31 

citadel of reason can not ordinarily be stormed 
^^ successfully by arguments without awakening 
some resistance. When the public has taken an 
attitude of self-defense, and attempts to avoid 
our proposals, the arguments must be strong if 
they are to result in victory. 

The syllogistic argument is a method of get- 
ting the intellectual *'drop" on the public, and 
compelling them to hold up their hands. When 
thus convinced the hands are brought down as 
soon as possible, and the funds turned over are 
the minimum amounts. 

Any man will sign a note for a thousand 
dollars if a revolver is held against his head and 
he is threatened with death unless he signs. The 
law, however, will not hold him for the pay- 
ment of the note, on the ground that it was 
signed under duress. A man convinced by the 
sheer force of logic is likely to avoid the very 
action which would seem to be the only natural 
result of the conviction thus secured. This 
situation is expressed by the familiar proverb, 
# "A man convinced against his will is of the 
same opinion still." The truthfulness of this 
statement is continually illustrated by your 
actions and mine. 

My wife and Dr. Fletcher made me admit 



(I 



Ill 



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32 Influencing Men in Business 

that I should chew my food with great care 
The argument as presented was : - 

A sensible man is one who takes pains to 
acquire habus that will prolong life and 
increase human efficiency 

SSe' -fT'""' u^ ^°°^ '^ ^"^^ ^ habit. 
food ''"^^^^ masticating my 

iwo years ago I workerl nn ^u^ 
for and agaln^'the „ectt:'f 1""' 
t.on each year. When die argumeL wet 
formulated in my mind I was thC^MyT: 

y™Hf f*:r""?' °' '^■'■"^ ^ vacarioIeT^ 

When the time for my vacation arrived I spent 
the time, not on the golf links, but in worS 
on my book, "Increasing Human Efficielc* ' 

du« i r'^ t'*'""* ''™'"™ would con- 
dutt elecmcey I would be impressed by Z 



*> 



An Analysis of Deliberation 33 

If I already believed that a soldier should be 
supported by the state; that real estate is a 
profitable investment; that Fletcherizing is de- 
sirable ; that vacations are essential, then the syl- 
logism proving the case would appeal to me as 

s a^p^al t£us^s 

chief use we make^of the syllogism is to put 
together the grounds upon which we would 
have been logically justified in reaching the con- 
clusion we already hold or in performing the 
act which we have already performed. 

The Aristotelian logic — arguments pre- 
sented in the form of a syllogism — is not to be 
despised by the business man. It has a place 
even though that place may not be so great as 
assumed by some. The weakness of the syllo- 
gism is that it compels assent rather than wins 
approval. Since the_ actions of men are not 
regulated exclusiv ely by reas on^ dependence 
uponTogical arguments_i s precar ious^ 

A conviction and an execution may result 
without deliberation (e.g., the result of imita- 
tion) so they are not the peculiarly characteriz- 
ing features of deliberation. The steps which 
precede the conviction differ in acts which may 
be classed as deliberative and in those which 



I 



III 







STAINED PAGE(S) 




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34 INFIUENCING MeN IN BUSINESS 

should not be so classed. We sho„l^ 
the terra deliberation for th, , ''f "" 

including the five steps. ''""'''"''' «* 

You may properly be said to have deliber 

""orK (or to adopt the new) : 

„hl; ^^■" J"" '""'' '"^ definitely i„ „ind 
what ,s .nvolved in the proposed eha'n^e 

2. After you have imagined yourself as tak 
Z:^: """'"' "''' '■> 'ff- '"e proposed 

-9ffi;r::^;:srtbS.'" 

J- And then have taken steps to put vo„r 
conviction into execution. '^ 

a fie W "t"°" "'"' °'" "='' "^ ■'^ ">'de with I 
a feel ng of greater certainty because of Z ' 

formal steps taken in reaching it. Th re s an I 
assurance in conviction after due dX ion 

reached wi.h:uXr^tra;eri;t," 



# 



An Analysis of Deliberation 35 

to tenaciously, even when assailed by later argu- 
ments against the wisdom of the act. 

The science of chemistry has rendered a 
great service to the manufacturer of material 
things by showing him exactly all the elements 
included in the material with which he works. 
The mM||facturer adopts his methods to utilize 
as far ^possible all the elements indicated by 
the chemical analysis. When the chemist re- 
ports the essential constituents of cement in the 
slag secured from steel, the manufacturer is 
enabled to convert his dump heap into a valu- 
able by-product. 

The science of psychology makes clear to 
the superintendent and to the salesman the fac- 
tors involved in an act of deliberation. The 
superintendent may thus persuade his employees 
more successfully when he remembers that a 
clear idea of the desired change is the first step 
in deliberation. He may avoid trouble by pro- 
viding that the how of the proposed change 
shall be presented to the men. He may decide 
to adopt some other method than argument 
when he appreciates the mental processes in- 
cluded in the normal reaction from arguments. 
Every man whose success depends upon the in- 
fluencing of men may be benefited by utilizing 












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36 Influencing Men in Business 

the findings of science rather than by followinff 
the rule-of-thumb or the traditions of the house 
Ihe salesman may make radical changes in 
his method when he realizes that every act of 
deliberation includes a feeling as to value 
which attaches itself to each of the possible 
choices of things or of acts. He may present 
his case more skilfully when he knows that the 
goods offered will be classified and compared in 
the course of the deliberation. He may bring 
the argument to a successful climax by keeping 
ever m mind that conviction and execution are 
the final and most essential parts of the 
deliberation. 

The manager of a steel plant should know 
the chemical constituents of the materials used 
The salesman or the superintendent who uses 
arguments should know what mental processes 
are awakened in the minds of men by the pre- 
senting of arguments. Through understanding 
the workings of the minds of his men he should 
know (i) when it Is wise to resort to argu- 
ments, and (2) how to construct them to secure 
the maximum results. The answer to these two 
questions will be taken up in later chapters.* 

•Chapters V and VII 



i 



CHAPTER III 
AN ANALYSIS OF SUGGESTION 



OUTLINE 

Traditional and Modern Conception of Suggestion 
I. The Working of Suggestion is Dependent upon 
the Impulsive, Dynamic Nature of Ideas 
XL Suggestions are Given by External Objects 
(usually Persons) and Result in Acts Similar 
to Imitative Acjts 

III. Suggestion Includes No Comparison or Criti- 

cism- "^ 

IV. Suggestion Secures Direct Response Without 

Any Delay 
Illustration of Principles 



I 






\ 



CHAPTER III 
AN ANALYSIS OF SUGGESTION 

Traditional and Modern Conception of 
Suggestion 

The ancients defined man as the reasoning 
animal. When they attempted to comprehend 
the workings of his mind, it was by contrast 
with the mind of the animal which was supposed 
to be devoid of reason. They thought of man 
as responding normally only to logical appeals. 
Hence the problems connected with influencing 
man were turned over to the logicians for solu- 
tion. 

Three centuries before the Christian era, that 
great thinker, Aristotle, gave to the world a 
master work on logic. He showed exactly how 
arguments must be presented if they are to be 
presented logically. The syllogism was fully 
explained. Methods of analyzing and classify- 
ing arguments were presented in detail. The 
work of Aristotle was so accurate and so com- 
plete that it dominated the thinking of all logi- 
cians for twenty centuries. During all these 
ages the only authoritative source of informa- 
tion concerning the ever-recurring problems of 

39 



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40 Influencing Men in Business 

influencing men was the standard works on logic. 
These books did not tell how men really think 
and act, but how they respond to appeals when 
they respond logically. 

_ Historically speaking, the only method recog- 
nized as important in persuading men and in 
securing normal responses was what might be 
called the logical method— the method of pre- 
senting cogent arguments in a logical way. It 
has been well to emphasize the logical nature 
of man. It is well for the individual to attempt 
to act logically and to conform his thinking to 
the rules of logic. When, however, we desire 
to exert the maximum influence over our fellows 
we cannot be bound down to the requirements 
of a logical presentation of our appeals. Many 
men have suspected a force other than that of 
logically presented arguments. In their failure 
to grasp this other method they have been led 
into most absurd errors. In die absence of 
science, superstition, magic, and even witchcraft 
have prevailed; and the charlatan has profited 
by the ignorance of the public. 

From the time of the ancients down to com- 
paratively recent times it was more or less 
definitely taught that profound and striking re- 
suits on individuals or on groups could be pro- 






An Analysis of Suggestion 



41 



duced only by means of some superhuman 
power. The stars were accredited with a domi- 
nating influence over individuals. To this day 
we continue to use expressions which have their 
interpretation in such superstitions. We *'thank 
our lucky stars"; we rap on wood when we 
boast; some of us carry a rabbifs foot in the 
pocket; others almost believe in lucky stones; 
while many assert that they are '^bewitched" 
when they do some particularly stupid thing. 
There was no possibility of great advance in the 
methods of influencing men so long as it was 
believed that factors in this influence were such 
things as demons, good or bad spirits, relics, 
birds' claws, stars, or any other supernormal 
uncontrollable elements. Superstition retarded 
the progress of truth. . 

K nugget of truth is often encased in, a mass\ 
of error. In the advance of any science a dis- \ 
covered truth may seem to give credibility to 
many errors. This is particularly true in the 
case of Dr. Mesmer, of Vienna, who founded 
the practice named after him as mesmerism. In 
spite of the mass of errors that permeated his 
teachings and the charlatanism that character- 
ized his practice, to Dr. Mesmer must be 
credited the honor of having inaugurated the 



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42 Influencing Men in Business 

movement which resulted in a scientific study of 
methods of influencing men. 

Dr. Mesmer as a youth was taught that the 
stars exerted an irresistible influence upon men. 
As a medical student he tried to discover a 
method for concentrating this influence and of 
bringing it to bear upon single individuals. He 
first made use of ''passes" with an ordinary 
magnet, but later discovered that by means of a 
series of rhythmical passes over the body of a 
subject he could throw the subject into a trance 
and cause him to think and to act in extreme 
and weird ways. Instead of believing that the 
trance was caused by a demon or by a force 
emanating from the stars or the moon, Dr. 
Mesmer came to the conclusion that the results 
were secured by what he called ''animal magnet- 
ism." Just as a physical magnet exerts an in- 
visible but powerful influence over particles of 
iron, so, he thought, one human individual may 
exert an influence over others. Some individu- 
als are possessed of much animal magnetism, 
and are known as individuals of commanding 
influence, of strong personalities, of dominating 
wills. Also, just as a material magnet may upon 
contact impart its magnetism to otherwise inert 
metals, so the magnetic individual may by means 



An Analysis of Suggestion 



43 



of passes over the body of a weak subject impart 
influence and magnetize him. 

In 1 84 1 a wise Scotch physician by the name 
of James Braid witnessed the exhibition of a 
mesmerist. This operator seemed to have won- 
derful control over his subjects. He caused 
them to sleep, to see visions, to have desires and 
aversions. Dr. Braid at first suspected trickery, 
but soon became convinced that the phenomena 
were real. He was also convinced that the 
theory of animal magnetism was not necessary 
to explain the results. Braid and his followers, 
Liebeaut and Bernheim, formulated the theory 
that the results exhibited by the mesmerists 
were produced by the unrecognized working of 
the mind of the subject This unrecognized 
force of the subject's own mind was called "sug- 
gestion." The trance Into which subjects were 
thrown by mesmerists was said by Braid to be 
but artificial sleep produced, not by the power 
of the mesmerist, but by the Ideas In the mind of 
the subject. This artificial sleep was by Braid 
given the name of Hypnosis, and was said to be 
but an Instance of the extreme working of 
suggestion. 

Drs. Braid, the Scotchman, and Liebeaut and 
Bernheim, who were Frenchmen, may In a sense 



A 




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44 Influencing Men in Business 

be said to have discovered Suggestion. They 
thought of It primarily as a force that could be 
used for producing unusual, extreme, and even 
abnormal results on human individuals. It was 
readily seen, however, that the force which 
could produce extreme results might certainly 
be an important factor in producing the usual 
and normal results. During recent years sug- 
gestion has been heralded as the great force in 
education and religion, in social and political 
movements, and in the promotion of health and 
the amelioration of sickness. It has been con- 
fidently asserted that the results of the adver- 
tiser and of all salesmen are dependent upon the 
subtle working of suggestion rather than upon 
the logical presentation of facts to the reason of 
the customers. 

We have been taught by tradition that man is 
inherently logical, that he weighs evidence, 
formulates it into a syllogism, and then reaches 
the conclusion on which he bases his action. 
I The more modern conception of man is that he 
I IS a creature who rarely reasons at all. Indeed, 
one of the greatest students of the human mind 
assures us that most persons never perform an 
act of pure reasoning, but that all their acts are 
the results of imitation, habit, suggestion, or 




An Analysis of Suggestion 



45 



some related form of thinking which Is dis- 
tinctly below that which could be called reason- 
ing. Our most important acts are performed 
and our most sacred conceptions are reached by 
means of the merest suggestion. Great com- 
manders of men are not those who are best 
skilled in reasoning with their subordinates. 
The greatest inspirers of men are not those who 
are most logical in presenting their truths to the 
multitude. Even our greatest debaters are not 
those who are most logical in presenting the 
arguments in favor of their contention. 

In moving and in inspiring men, suggestion 
is to be considered as in every way the equal of 
logical reasoning, and as such is to be made the 
subject of consideration for every man who is 
interested in influencing his fellows. While 
tradition regarded man as wholly logical, the 
modern conception, as already intimated, makes 
him largely a creature of suggestion. Never- 
theless the whole subject of suggestion has been 
rendered ridiculous and its true value obscured 
by a group of men who with inadequate psycho- 
logical learning, have been presenting sugges- 
tion as the open sesame to success in the busi- 
ness world. These teachers would lead the busi- 
ness man to assume that by suggestion an irre- 



U •'. 



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46 Influencing Men in Business 

sistible hypnotic spell could be utilized in busi- 
ness. In some instances correspondence courses 
in salesmanship pretend, upon the payment of a 
sum of money, to teach any unsophisticated 
youth how to wield this mysterious and super- 
human power. 

^ Because of the surviving influence of the tra- 
• ditional view of man as essentially logical, and 
because of the recent silly exaggeration of the' 
value of suggestion, the business man is inclined 
to look upon suggestion with little favor. 

The following analysis is an attempt to pre- 
sent suggestion without exaggeration and to 
analyze it in such a way that the business man 
can see its possibilities in connection with his 
special task of influencing men. 

I. The Working of Suggestion is Depend- 
ent upon the Impulsive, Dynamic 
Nature of Ideas 

In trying to imagine how our minds work in 
making decisions or reaching conclusions, we 
are inclined to accept the traditional view and to 
think of ourselves as acting according to the 
rules of formal logic. We thus assume that we 
think out the reasons pro and con, that we ar- 
range these reasons in a logical order, that we 



An Analysis of Suggestion 



47 



weigh the evidence and make our decision. We 
assume that after the conclusion has been 
reached or the action decided upon, we then, by 
a distinct effort of the will, initiate the action. 
We conceive of ideas as being nothing more 
than formal, inert reasons and we assume that 
to secure action we must add to our ideas the 
activity of the will. 

As a matter of fact this conception of ideas is 
wrong and leads to error when we try either to 
interpret or to influence human action. The 
modern scientific conception of psychology is 
that ideas are the most live things in the uni- 
verse. They are dynamic and naturally lead to 
action. This dynamic, impulsive nature of ideas 
is expressed in the following law : 

Every idea of an action will result in that 
action unless hindered by an impeding idea or 
physical impediment. 

Or as expressed by Hollingworth, "Every 
idea of a situation tends to produce movements 
calculated to handle that situation.'* 

It seems quite impossible for us to think in- 
tently upon any movement without in some 
degree making the movement. In some in- 
stances we can detect ourselves making the 
beginning of the movements, but in others we 



\ 



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48 Influencing Men in Business 

can not. If I think of the letter *'o" I find that 
in the muscles of my lips there is a tension 
which becomes merely stronger for the actual 
pronunciation of the letter. If I think intently 
upon the letter '*k" I find that my tongue tends 
to draw back into the position necessary for pro- 
nouncing the letter. Even where these move- 
ments are so slight that they are not observed 
by the person himself, they may often be re- 
corded by a planchette, ouija-board, or other 
similar device. 

The tendency for an Idea of an act to lead to 
the act is also shown in glandular and involun- 
tary muscle-actions. Thus if I get an idea that 
I am going to blush, the idea sends the blood 
rushing to my face. If I think intently of biting 
into a ripe, juicy peach, the salivary glands re- 
spond at once, even though no food has been 
taken into my mouth. The influence of ideas 
in the digestion and assimilation of food has 
recently been fully proven. The idea that one 
is to be sick is a factor in producing sickness. 
The idea that one is progressing well and will 
recover is a factor in bringing about the 
recovery. 

The wise parent and teacher make constant 
use of the dynamic nature of ideas. The one 



h 



An Analysis of Suggestion 49 

who fails to regard this fact gets into trouble. 
The solicitous parent who upon leaving her chil- 
dren said, *'Now, children, whatever you do 
don't put beans in your noses," should not have 
been surprised upon her return to find that the 
children's noses were filled with beans. The 
idea, *'beans in the nose," simply took posses- 
sion of their minds and the dynamic force of the 
idea led to the activity. In controlling children 
parents and teachers learn not to suggest the 
things which are to be avoided. The impulsive 
nature of the suggested ideas is too much for 
the children to resist. 

The dynamic nature of mind is further shown 
by the fact which is expressed in the following 
general law : 

Every idea, concept or conclusion which 
enters the mind is held as true unless hindered 
by some contradictory idea. 

The inhabitant of southern Europe believes 
that the Pope is infallible and that Mohammed 
is the great enemy of mankind. The inhabitant 
of southwestern Asia believes that Mohammed 
is. the great prophet and that the Pope is an 
impostor. The inhabitant of Germany believes 
in the divine right of the ruler. The American 
believes that the democratic form of govern- / 






I 



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50 Influencing Men in Business 

ment Is the divinely chosen plan for national 
government. Millions of men hold these be- 
liefs and would be willing to die for them. In 
I most instances this faith is not the result of rea- 
son or any form of critical thinking, but Is the 
result of suggestion. The ideas were merely 
presented and led to their normal result, which 
Is belief. 

Thus the American public have come to be- 
lieve that manual labor is degrading; that 
wealth Is the only standard measure of achieve- 
ment; that It Is unwomanly for women to con- 
sume stimulants or narcotics ; that Ivory Soap Is 
{ 99 44/100 per cent pure; that White Rock Is 
the world's best table water; that **there Is a 
reason" for Postum; that the Gillette adds to 
the sum total of human happiness. The belief 
In these statements has become established In the 
minds of millions, but in most of the instances 
the belief Is the result of suggestion rather than 
of any higher form of thought. The Ideas have 
merely been frequently presented and their 
dynamic Impulsive nature culminated In belief. 

The general and universal tendency is to ac- 
cept as valid all Ideas, and this result follows in 
every instance unless with the Idea there arises 
an idea of its falsity. 



/ 






An Analysis of Suggestion 51 

The significance of this fact of the dynamic 
nature of thought and Its application to busi- 
ness must be apparent to all. If we can give a 
man any sort of an Idea It Is not necessary to 
convince him of the truth of the Idea If we 
can keep conflicting Ideas from arising In his 
mind. If I can get you to read the sentence, 
''Morgan and Wright tires are good tires," you 
will believe that they are good tires and that too 
without any further proof, if only contradictory 
ideas do not surge up into your mind. 

When a man Is hypnotized and told that the 
world Is to come to an end in thirty minutes, he 
believes it fully because contradictory ideas do 
not arise to inhibit the suggested idea of 

calamity. 

A crowd composed of Intelligent citizens will 
accept as truth the most absurd utterances and 
applaud proposed plans which individually each 
man might scorn in derision. As Individuals we 
inhibit more actions than we perform. A feel- 
ing of responsibility and propriety restrains us 
individually in a way that is absent when we be- 
come absorbed in a crowd. Whatever is done 
by other members of the crowd secure proper; 
also, because of the many involved, the feeling 
of responsibility is removed from each member. 



,) 



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52 Influencing Men in Business 

. The crowd, being relieved from the restraints 
^ of propriety, of responsibility, and of critical 
4 thinking, is'in a condition to exhibit the dynamic 
force of ideas In an extreme form. There is an 
alacrity of response, an immediate carrying out 
of every suggested action, which is not apparent 
in the action of single individuals. The indi- 
vidual Is wholly absorbed In the crowd purpose 
and Is completely devoted to that purpose, 
whether It be the lynching of a negro, the adora- 
tion of a hero, the winning of the game, or the 
capture of the Holy Sepulchre. In times of 
panics the Idea^ets abroad that property Is de- 
preciating In valiie. This Idea is accepted by 
most persons without proof simply because the 
attendant conditions keep contradictory Ideas 
from arising In the mind. Hypnosis and the 
crowd remove the Inhibitions and permit the 
dynamic nature of Ideas to manifest Itself. 
7 The first characteristic of an aA of sugges- 
tion, then. Is that the Ideas carry themselves out 
Into action and Into belief by means of an in- 
herent tendency. This tendency we speak of as 
the "dynamic Impulsive nature of Ideas.'' No 
act should be attributed to suggestion unless It 
Illustrates this impulsive nature of ideas in a 
more or less striking manner. 



An Analysis of Suggestion 



53 



'r 



II. Suggestions are Given by External 
Objects (Usually Persons) and 
Result in Acts Similar to Imitative 
Acts 

Unfortunately the word imitation is applied 
to two distinct classes of acts. If I come to the 
conclusion that a particular author is using an 
excellent style, I may consciously and volun- 
tarily attempt to imitate his style. This sort of 
imitation is known as voluntary imitation. 
There is another sort of imitation known as 
non-voluntary imitation. This is well illustrated 
by the tendency to imitate a yawn or cough. If 
one member of a group coughs, others are 
likely to imitate the act although there is no con- 
scious desire to do so. If I associate with per- 
sons having a peculiar intonation of voice I am 
likely to imitate their peculiarities even though 
such is not my desire. These are the sort of 
imitative acts under consideration in this dis- 
cussion. They are the sort of imitative acts 
which we do without realizing them and which 
we certainly never voluntarily perform; hence, 
they are known as non-voluntary imitative acts. 
Throughout the history of the development 
of the human race, people have lived in groups. 
Every group has had its common enemy and its 






i\ 



54 Influencing Men in Business 

common friends. Unity of action and unity of 
thought have been essential. Consequently we 
have developed tendencies to produce such uni- 
formities. The sight of one person performing 
any act begets in others a tendency to perform 
the same act. If one person has a belief which 
he expresses in any way, others are inclined to 
have the same belief. We are by nature great 
imitators, and our credulity is greater than we 
are willing to believe. 

Hypnosis, mob-action, and panics are but 
illustrations of extreme cases of the universal 
tendency to imitate the acts of others and to be- 
lieve what we assume they believe. In hypnosis 
the subject becomes drowsy because of his be- 
lief that the hypnotist confidently expects it of 
him. He is unable to move his hand because of 
his belief that the hypnotist knows that he can 
not. He sees a vision because of his belief that 
the hypnotist expects him to see the vision. It 
makes no difference what the hypnotist actually 
thinks, but only what the subject assumes that 
he thinks. The ideas of the subject are sug- 
gested because they result from the words and 
acts of the hypnotist. 

In mob-action, in panics, and in all forms of 
social stampedes, the force of suggestion be- 



^. 



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An Analysis of Suggestion 



55 



comes irresistible. We all imitate the actions 
that we see in others, and we believe what the 
others believe. In mob-action of any form the 
individual receives the same suggestion from 
each individual composing the mob. The sug- 
gestion comes from the words spoken, the ges- 
tures made, the emotions expressed. The native 
imltativeness and credulity of the normal in- 
dividual is so great that such a wave of sugges- 
tion is Irresistible. 

The efficiency of advertising is doubtless In 
part due to the action of suggestion and is much 
like the working of suggestion In mobs. As I 
read an advertisement of Ivory Soap In a me- 
dium of wide circulation I feel that it Is being 
read and believed in by multitudes of people. I 
feel sure that It Is being purchased by thousands 
of my fellow mortals. The suggestion that the 
soap is 99 44/100 per cent pure does not seem 
to come primarily from the concern which 
makes the statement, but from the thousands of 
customers who now believe It. The tendency to 
act as they are supposed to act Is also no small 
factor in causing mc to imitate their assumed 
actions. 

All acts resulting from suggestion are similar 
to these non-voluntary imitative acts. Indeed 



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56 Influencing Men in Business 

all non-voluntary imitation is the working of 
suggestion. Thus in a store I see a customer 
making a particular purchase and I receive the 
suggestion from this act and imitate it. I see a 
fellow workman increase his pace and although 
I have not intended to change my speed the 
chances are that the suggestion will lead to a 
non-voluntary imitation. If I see others joyous 
or sad they give me the suggestion of joy or 
sorrow and I non-voluntarily imitate their 
moods. 

If all our suggestions, in so far as they result 
in actions, were received from persons we would 
discard the word suggestion as a useless term 
and employ only the term non- voluntary imita- 
tion. As a matter of fact we receive many sug- 
gestions from things as well as persons. As ex- 
amples of suggestions received from things 
there might be mentioned such devices as money- 
envelopes, return coupons, dotted lines for 
signatures, etc. 

In carrying out all suggestions we feel much 
as we do when we imitate. We feel that we 
have not been forced, that we are doing just 
what we wish to do, that it is the only natural 
and rational thing to do under the circum- 
stances. We deceive ourselves into thinking we 






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An Analysis of Suggestion 57 

arc doing voluntarily that which we are doing 
from a mere suggestion. 

III. Suggestion Includes No Comparison 
OR Criticism 

Every idea is dynamic and must lead to action 
or belief, or else it must call up another idea. 
For instance, if I should state that the square 
of twenty-six is six hundred and seventy-sbc, that 
idea would be believed by you or else would 
awaken in your mind the idea that I was merely 
jesting or that I had made a mistake. If I 
should state that you would now scratch the end 
of your nose to remove the unpleasant feeling 
caused by the fly sitting there, you would feel a 
strong tendency to scratch your nose, or else the 
idea would cause you to think how foolish it 
would be to perform the act. In an act that can 
properly be called suggestion the idea never 
calls up other ideas, such as '*he is jesting" or 
*'how foolish" — hvtt the idea is a ccepted uncri ti- 
cally and without any deliberatioiL 

When in conversation with certain indi- 
viduals, we discover that for them our words 
are powerful suggestions. If we say that the 
day is fine, they respond that the atmosphere is 
unusually bracing. If we state that they are 



^ 'ill! 



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58 Influencing Men in Business 

looking pale and weak, they -are likely to feel 
sick at once and possibly send for a physician. 
If we propose a game of golf, that particular 
form of activity appeals to them as the only 
possible pleasing form of recreation. Such in- 
dividuals would be classed as extremely sugges- 
tible. There are others for whom our words 
are not taken as suggestions, but who are stimu- 
lated to criticize, no matter what we say. If wc 
remark that the weather is fine, they imme- 
diately reply that it is liable to rain before night. 
If we tell them they are looking sick, they reply 
that they never felt better in all their lives. If 
we propose golf, they advance six reasons why 
it would be absurd for any sensible individual to 
waste his time at that silly game. Such indi- 
viduals, because of their complete lack of sug- 
gestibility, are unsuited to any form of co- 
operative endeavor and are out of place in 
modern industry. 

Since suggestion is free from criticism, 
neither the opposite nor any possible alternative 
to the thing proposed enters the mind. All 
normal persons are suggestible under certain 
conditions and take the suggestions given if 
these are of the right sort and presented 
properly. 



An Analysis of Suggestion 



59 



IV. Suggestion Secures Direct Response 
Without Any Delay 

In deliberation we must delay in order that 
sufficient time may intervene for possible al- 
ternatives to arise in our minds for us to classify 
them, to compare them, and to make a choice 
between them. Deliberation thus places the sub- 
ject in a more or less critical attitude, and unless 
the argument is conclusive, this attitude is likely 
to be retained and the proposed action perma- 
nently resisted. Delay is essential for weigh- 
ing arguments, but every moment of delay in- 
creases the probability that no action will result. 
The inherent weakness of deliberation is ex- 
pressed in the familiar quotation, "He who 

hesitates is lost** 

In suggestion the proposed idea of an act is 
allowed to take its normal course, which, ac- 
cording to the impulsive nature of ideas, results 
in immediate action. The proposed act may be 
of such a nature that it can not be completed 
till some future time. Even in such instances 
the act is really begun at once even though it can 
not be completed till later. For example, if it is 
suggested to me that I secure a ticket when 
down town tomorrow, and if without any con- 
sideration I consent to do so, my consent is due 



) 




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60 'Influencing Men in Business 

to suggestion and the tickets probably will be 
purchased tomorrow. The consent follows the 
suggestion immediately and the tickets will be 
purchased at the appropriate time and that too 
without any deliberation at the later time of 
purchase. Of course something might happen 
in the meantime which would cause me to con- 
sider the advisability of the purchase and in 
such a case it would cease to be an act of sug- 
gestion. 

Illustration of Principles 

The four principles revealed by the analysis 
of suggestion are best understood when applied 
to an extreme case, i.e., to the condition known 
as hypnosis. Common charcoal and cut dia- 
monds are each equally good examples of car- 
bon. In the same way the working of sugges- 
tion may be illustrated by profound hypnosis or 
by the effect of such common advertising as 
"Use Pears' Soap." 

In presenting the subject of suggestion to my 
classes in psychology I am accustomed to dem- 
onstrate its most extreme manifestations. 
Three of the most hi^ly esteemed men stu- 
dents in the class are selected and seated in 
comfortable chairs in front of the class. Turn- 



An Analysis of Suggestion 



61 



ing my attention to these three I get them to 
concentrate their minds upon the hypnotic con- 
dition as I depict it. After a few minutes I 
assert with a voice of assurance that their eyes 
are getting heavy, are heavy; are closing, are 
closed! If my remarks have been effectively 
given the young men find that their eyes do just 
as I suggest. After securing the successful 
working of this suggestion upon their eyes, I 
follow rapidly with other suggestions of increas- 
ing difficulty. I assert that their right arms are 
stiff and can not be moved. They often attempt 
to show that their arms can be moved but 
usually their attempts are unsuccessful. I assert 
that their left arms are light, are rising up and 
moving in a circle. This suggestion is usually 
successful. I suggest that the bottle which I 
hold to their noses contains a delightful per- 
fume. Thereupon they enjoy the odor im- 
mensely even though the bottle contains asa- 
fetida. 

It is evident that the four principles found in 
the analysis of ordinary suggestion characterize 
this extreme form of suggestion also. 

I. The dynamic nature of thought was shown 
in that the idea conceived by the young men 
carried itself out even though it involved appar- 



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62 



Influencing Men in Business 



ent absurdity. The Me^i «'r«,r 

^r- xneiaea, my eyes are closed '' 

ex ernal objects or persons was illustrated by 
my givrng all the suggestions to them. 

watcao^'lf^ M,"" °^ ^°"^P^ri«on and criticism 

enjoyed the odor because I told them thev 
would, even though the odor of asafeTida il 
excessively nauseous. , 

4. That suggestion secures direct resDonsP 

with which all suggested ideas were held as true 
everyltaif "''' "''" ^^'^ ^^^'^'^^^ - 

-^^^^^^^^P-^ . He should realized h^ 
ever that hypnosis is simply an extreme ex- 

ex'rel '"1?"'"". ^" ^^^^^^'^ ^^ «^« the 
extreme working of a method of influencing 

forms. The value of the four principles re- 

fact tha they hold universally and hence are 
applicable to every instance in which suggestion 
IS used as a means of influencing men Later 



An Analysis of Suggestion 63 

chapters* will deal with the very practical prob- 
lems of ( I ) when the business man should use 
suggestion, and (2) how suggestions may be 
made effective. 



^Chapters VI and VUL 



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I 



CHAPTER IV 

WHAT IS YOUR METHOD OF DECII> 
ING QUESTIONS AND REACHING 

CONCLUSIONS? 



OUTLINE 



Do People Deliberate or Do They Act Upon Sug- 
gestion in Reaching a Conclusion? 
Methods of Reaching a Decision: 
I. Logical Reasoning : Benjamin Franklin's Method 
Reason— Authority: Bismarck's Method 
Reason— Emotion: Woman's Method 
Reason— Suggestion: Flipped-Coin Method 
Suggestion: Weather Vane 
_Which of These Methods are Used Frequently and 
Which but Occasionally? 



<IL 

in. 

IV. 
V. 



^■' 






CHAPTER IV 

WHAT IS YOUR METHOD OF DECID- 
ING QUESTIONS AND REACHING 

CONCLUSIONS? 

Do People Deliberate or Do They Act 
UPON Suggestion in Reaching a Conclu- 
sion? 

In dealing with men we try to get them to 
accept certain conclusions, to select certain ends, 
or to act In particular ways. These results may 
be secured either by deliberation or by sugges 
tlon. The recognition of this fact Immediately 
leads us to ask the following question, If conclu- 
sions may be reached, ends chosen, and acts 
performed, as the result either of deliberation 
or of suggestion, then as a matter of fact how 
do people decide — do they deliberate or do they 
act upon suggestion ? 

In the previous chapters we discussed typical 
acts of deliberation and typical acts of sugges- 
tion. As a matter of fact are these typical forms 
the usual forms of deciding? Are there some 
persons who habitually use the first of these 
methods and some the second? Or is it true 

67 



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68 Influencing Men in Business 

that certain types of decisions are made by de- 
liberation and others by suggestion? The 
answers to these questions lead to a study of the 
different methods which are actually employed 
in solving problems which arise from moment to 
moment and from year to year. 

Methods of Reaching a Decision : 

I. Logical Reasoning: Benjamin Frank- 
lin's Method 

There is a method of deciding which corre- 
sponds perfectly to what was presented in the 
last chapter as a typical act of deliberation. We 
shall speak of it here as the Benjamin Franklin 
type. If you belong to this type and have a 
problem to solve (e.g., change in method of 
work, change of position, goods to be pur- 
chased, etc.) , you solve it ( i ) by getting a clear 
idea of the alternatives; (2) by getting in mind 
complete data concerning the means necessary 
for securing the alternative; (3) by awakening 
the appropriate "feeling value" with each 
alternative; (4) by comparing the different 
alternatives, and by reducing the argument to 
the syllogistic form to weigh the evidence ; and 
(5) hy logically and coldly accepting that al- 



Reaching Conclusions 



69 



ternative which the comparison shows to be the 
most worthy. 

In applying this method we are often unable 
to reach a conclusion because of our inability to 
reduce the argument to syllogistic form, and 
hence to make exact comparisons and decide 
which course of action is to be preferred. Ben- 
jamin Franklin used this method extensively and 
he has left us a description of the device he 
employed to reach the conclusion. The follow- 
ing is a quotation from a letter to a friend con- 
cerning a difficult problem : 

"In the affair of so much importance to you, 
wherein you ask my advice, I can not, for want 
of sufficient premises, counsel you what to de- 
termine; but, if you please, I will tell you how. 
When those difficult cases occur, they are diffi- 
cult chiefly because, while we have them under 
consideration, all the reasons pro and con are 
not present to the mind at the same time; but 
sometimes one set present themselves, and at 
other times another, the first being out of sight. 
Hence the various purposes or inclinations that 
alternately prevail, and the uncertainty that per- 
plexes us. 

'To get over this, my way is to divide half a 
sheet of paper by a line Into two columns; writ- 



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70 Influencing Men in Business 

ing over the one pro and over the other con; 
then, during three or four days' consideration, I 
put down, under the different heads, short hints 
of the different motives that at different times 
occur to me for or against the measure. When 
I have thus got them all together in one view, I 
endeavor to estimate their respective weights; 
and when I find tivo (one on each side) that 
seem equal, I strike them both out. If I find a 
reason pro equal to tivo reasons con, I strike 
out the three. If I judge some two reasons con 
equal to three reasons pro, I strike out the jive; 
and thus proceeding, 1 find where the balance 
lies; and if, after a day or two of further con- 
sideration, nothing new that is of importance 
occurs on either side I come to a determination 
accordingly. And though the weight of reason 
can not be taken with the precision of algebraic 
quantities, yet when each is thus considered sepa- 
rately and comparatively, and the whole lies 
before me, I think I can judge better and am 
less liable to take a false step. And in fact I 
have found great advantage from this kind of 
equation. In what may be termed moral or pru- 
dential algebra." 

This reasoning is in the form of an implied 
syllogism, i.e., I must accept this because my 



W 



Reaching Conclusions 71 

moral algebra shows It to be the more valuable. 
The expanded syllogistic form is as follows: 

I shall accept that alternative that my moral 
algebra shows to have the greatest value. 

My moral algebra indicates that A has the 
greater value. 

Therefore I accept A. 

This method of Benjamin Franklin's is ap- 
plicable to hesitation caused by considering the 
consequences of acting or of not acting, as well 
as to hesitation caused by weighing the respec- 
tive advantages of several mutually exclusive 
actions. Although very few persons have ever 
employed the method In Its entirety, as did 
Franklin, yet we all approximate the method in 
our deliberate actions. Most of us never clearly 
define the different reasons for or against any 
action and we do not hold the different reasons 
before us and compare them In a judicious man- 
ner. Ordinarily one reason for or against an 
action holds the attention and all other reasons 
are crowded out and serve to delay action but 
not to divert it. We are wise and judicious in 
proportion to our ability to compare motives 
and decide according to reason, but most of us 
are neither wise nor judicious. 



iil t 

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72 Influencing Men in Business 

Doubtless you do not use this Benjamin 
Franklin method in the exact and formal man- 
ner described by him. When you do use the 
method, you attempt to abbreviate it by refer- 
ring the case to a general class and to one of the 
classes to which you have formed the habit of 
responding unhesitatingly. If you are consider- 
ing the proposition of changing your method or 
speed of work, and if you classify the act as one 
of "increased pay," you will decide in the af- 
firmative; in the negative, if you classify it as 
merely "an attempt of the boss to speed up his 
employees." If you are considering the offer to 
enter the employ of a larger firm you will accept 
it if you finally classify the proposed change as 
"greater possibilities"; you will reject it if you 
classify it as "loss of independence." The 
salesman will sell you the goods if he can get 
you to classify them as "good investments" ; he 
will fail if you classify them as "speculations." 
In deciding according to this Benjamin 
Franklin method, whether the process is carried 
on slowly and formally as advised by Franklin 
or whether it is shortened by referring it to a 
class with its stereotyped form of response, 
there is in either case ( i ) a deliberation involv- 
ing comparison, and (2) a decision free from 




Reaching Conclusions y^ 

effort as soon as the evidence is all in and the 
case definitely classified. 






Methods of Reaching a Decision: 

II. Reason — Authority : Bismarck's 
Method 

There is a second method of deciding which 
is much like logical reasoning but differs from 
It in one very essential feature. In this second 
method after the evidence is all in there seems 
to be no balance in favor of either alternative, 
so the question is decided after the deliberation 
has been exhausted. The decision is finally 
made by an effort of will. 

The struggle may be severe, but in any case 
the deliberation is brought to a close and the 
question settled by a determined "I will !" The 
reason alone seems inadequate to meet the case 
so the authority of the Individual is needed to 
supplant the reason. This type is therefore 
properly called the reason-authority type of de- 
cision, or the Bismarck type, if named after the 
one who is reputed to have surpassed others in 
deciding in this way. 

In deciding according to the Franklin method 
the vanquished alternative drops out of mind 



n 



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74 Influencing Men in Business 

and IS not attended to at the crucial moment of 
decision. In the Bismarck method both alterna- 
tives are kept in mind and by an act of will the 
one is vanquished and the other selected. In 
making the choice the subject is aware of what 
he is losing and so must struggle to give it up. 

If you decide problems according to the Bis- 
marck method then at the moment of decision 
you will have in mind both the profits to be 
gained by a change of method of work and also 
the sacrifice of ease necessary to make the 
change. The evidence is not clear as to what is 
the right course to pursue and only by a de- 
termined ''I will!" can you settle it. If you 
settle the same question by the Franklin method, 
then at the moment of decision one alternative 
has already been eliminated and the victorious 
one holds your undivided attention. In the Bis- 
marck decision one alternative never succeeds in 
securing exclusive attention. 

If the salesman has been unable to banish 
competing lines from your mind so that with 
other goods as well as his in mind you are com- 
pelled to make the effort to decide which you 
will choose, you decide according to the method 
of Bismarck. If he has succeeded in banishing 
all competing lines from your mind and has 



\ 



Reaching Conclusions 75 

enabled you to make your decision without 
effort, then he has enabled you to decide accord- 
ing to the method of Franklin. As a matter of 
fact most persons rarely use the Bismarck type 
of deciding. We usually think of the person 
with a strong will as making frequent use of the 
Bismarck method. However, the man who is 
able to utilize the Franklin method is to be 
credited with an equally strong will. The man 
deciding according to Franklin's method shows 
his strength of will by his mastery in weighing 
evidence and classifying the cases that arise for 
solution. The man deciding according to the 
Bismarck method shows his strength of will by 
deciding without delay. Franklin's method is 
in general the more desirable form of strength 
of will but in a crisis Bismarck's type of strength 
of will IS necessary for heroic action. 

Methods of Reaching a Decision: 

III. Re^^son— Emotion : Woman's Method 

The woman's method of decision differs 
materially from the two preceding types. In 
this third type insufficient time is given to the 
deliberation, or difficulty is found in classifying 
the problem. The deliberation is interrupted 



_— -»u.«9Wub. 



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*' 



76 Influencing Men in Business 

by a sudden extreme feeling of value attaching 
itself to one or the other of the contemplated 
alternatives. The feelings rush in and take the 
place of reason. In deciding by the woman's 
method we are scarcely able to see how we 
reached our conclusion and we often speak erf 
such decisions as being intuitive. We simply 
feel that we should decide in a certain way and 
fortunately the feelings are frequently right. 
Women are supposed to decide in this way more 
often than men. They are supposed to have 
more perfectly developed instincts or intuitions. 
Their sentiment vanquishes attempts to utilize 
sophisticated reasoning and the outcome is fre- 
quently wise and in every way as worthy of 
respect as are the results of more complete 
forms of deliberation. 

A single illustration will make clear this 
method of deciding. If you are contemplating a 
change in method or speed of work, and are 
considering the alternatives, you decide accord- 
ing to the woman's method if a sudden rush of 
feeling or rise of sentiment towards one of the 
alternatives cuts short your deliberation and 
settles it for you even though the evidence is not 
yet all in and though the *'I will!" has not been 
resorted to. 



( 



Reaching Conclusions 77 

This method is not at all confined to women 
but IS a very common method of deciding any 
question in which feelings and emotions are 
prominent. 

Methods of Reaching a Decision : 

IV. Reason— Suggestion : Flipped-Coin 
Method 

The flipped-coin method of deciding is like 
the woman's method in that in each the delibera- 
tion is suddenly cut short and a definite conclu- 
sion reached. The flipped-coin method differs 
from the woman's method, however, in that the 
factor which brings the deliberation to an end 
in the woman's method is an internal stimulus— 
a surging up of feeling; the factor which stops 
the deliberation in the flipped-coin method is an 
external stimulus accidentally arising at the 
critical moment. 

If I am debating whether I shall continue my 
work or go to the ball game, I may feel that 
either course is not far wrong and yet I may be 
unable to decide which to pursue. In such a 
dilemma I sometimes flip a coin and let the 
chance falling of the coin settle the matter for 
me. This device for settling problems is typical 



/ 



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FP^ 



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78 Influencing Men in Business 

and IS Intended to symbolize numerous decisions 
in which we permit some external happening to 
take the place of further deliberation. When 
our attempts to deliberate have been futile we 
sometimes '*wait for the question to settle it- 
self." This may mean that we abandon all hope 
of settling the question; it may mean that we 
are waiting for further evidence; but it fre- 
quently means that we have merely ceased to 
deliberate and are waiting for a successful sug- 
gestion. 

If you are debating as to whether you shall 
change your place of employment, and if you 
are having difficulty to decide, you may suddenly 
stop your deliberation and imitate the action of 
a fellow employee who has succeeded in solving 
the same problem for himself. The fact that 
you had attempted to decide the problem by 
deliberation and had failed puts you in a posi- 
tion where a chance suggestion acts most power- 
fully. Reason thus gives way to suggestion, 
whether the suggestion be given by such a 
device as flipping the coin, the example of a 
companion, or by some more worthy external 

cue to action. 

This flipped-coin method is frequently em- 
ployed in purchasing goods. If you are deliber- 



% 



% '! 



Reaching Conclusions 



79 



ating concerning the purchase of a fountain pen 
and the relative merits of the different makes 
have not enabled you to decide according to 
logical processes as to which one to purchase, 
the sight of an advertisement of one of the 
makes may settle the question for you. If you 
are passing a stationer's store and see one of 
the makes In the window, the sight of the pen 
may be a sufficient suggestion to end the de- 
liberation and to secure the purchase of the pen. 
The genial companion, the hail-fellow-well- 
met, uses this method of decision very exten- 
sively. Most of the things we do are not done 
for sufficient logical reasons. The man who re- 
fuses to give heed to the suggestions of his 
fellows and to determine his actions accordingly 
Is not a pleasant person to be with. Where 
logical reasons are adequate they should be fol- 
lowed. An attempt to consider, to deliberate, 
should be as universal as possible. But since 
most questions do not admit of logical deter- 
mination, much opportunity Is left for sugges- 
tion as supplementary to reason. This form of 
determination Is perhaps more common In the 
business world than any of the types previously 
discussed. We start to reason but end with 
suggestion. 



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80 Influencing Men in Business 
Methods of Reaching a Decision : 
J V. Suggestion : Weather Vane 

The method of deciding which Involves no 
dehberation whatever is called suggestion. The 
thing is accepted at once and acted upon without 
any hesitation and hence without any possibility 
or tendency to deliberate. 

If I propose to you that you change your 
method of work— either as to quality or quan- 
tity—and if you accept the proposed change 
without weighing the merits of the case and 
without considering the rejection of the pro- 
posal, then you decide In a way that is properly 
designated as the working of suggestion. If I 
propose that you "quit slaving for your old 
boss" and "get into the band wagon and join 
forces with me," your acceptance is the result'of 
suggestion unless you consider the advantages 
of remaining in your former position and con- 
sider also the disadvantages of entering my 
employ. If I offer you my line of merchandise 
in such a way that my method of offering It or 
my "personal magnetism" are sufficient to cause 
you to buy without consideration, you then act 
upon suggestion. If the assertion in my adver- 
tisement, "Morgan and Wright tires are good 



Reaching Conclusions 



81 



tires," unsupported by any form of argumenta- 
tion, should convince you that my tires are good 
tires, then your conclusion would be wholly due 
to my suggestion. 

Which of These Methods are Used Fre- 
quently and Which but Occasionally? 

When we study the classifications of methods 
of deciding we see that the various classes differ 
first as to the prominence of deliberation, and 
second as to the manner In which the delibera- 
tion is completed or avoided. In Franklin's 
method the deliberation is fully developed; 
with each succeeding class this deliberation 
grows less till in the last class it is wholly absent. 

M In the Benjamin Franklin method the delibera- 
tion is brought to an end by balancing the 
books; in the Bismarck method by a tug of the 

/ will ; in the woman's method by a sudden awak- 
ening of the feelings and emotions; in the 

i flipped-coln method by a chance suggestion ; and 
in the weather-vane method deliberation is 
avoided altogether because of the extreme work- 
ing of the suggested conclusion, end, or activity. 
Every question you decide is settled according 
to one of the methods here considered. It be- 
comes a matter of interest and importance to 



V 



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82 Influencing Men in Business 

know which of these methods are used fre- 
quently and which ones but occasionally. 
^ Formerly it was supposed that man was 
* primarily a reasoning creature and that he de-^ 
cided practically all questions according to 
either the Franklin or the Bismarck method. 
Suggestion was relegated to abnormal psy- 
chology and supposed to be characteristic of 
children and hysterical adults. A more careful 
study of the methods used in every-day experi- 
ences has brought out the fact that Franklin's 
method and the Bismarck method are not com- 
mon methods in the usual experiences of life in 
the home, on the street, or in the business and 
industrial world. More common than either of 
these two are the methods of deciding in which 
deliberation is curtailed by some other shorter 
and simpler method of reaching a conclusion. 

A study of the methods which we all use in 
deciding leads inevitably to the conclusion that 
some problems are solved one way and some 
another. There is perhaps no normal adult who 
does not employ at least occasionally each of the 
methods described above. Under certain con- 
ditions we use one method and under different 
conditions we use others. We vary from day to 
day and from moment to moment in our suscep- 



Reaching Conclusions 



83 



tibility to argumentation and to suggestion. In 
deciding certain classes of questions we do not 
feel satisfied till we have deliberated; in other 
instances we feel no such need for deliberation 
but respond with alacrity to appropriate sugges- 
tions; persons and classes of society differ also 
in the extent to which they use the different 
methods of deciding questions. 




^:i 






it 



CHAPTER V 

WHEN TO USE ARGUMENTS IN 
INFLUENCING MEN 

OUTLINE 



I 






I- 



9 




\ 



Both Argument and Suggestion are Effective in 
Influencing Men 

I. Argument Preferred in Exploiting Any New 

Thing: Educational Campaign 
11. Argument Preferred in Securing Relatively- 
Important Acts 
III. Argument Preferred in Exploiting Anything 
Having Unusual Talking Points 
• IV. Argument Preferred when It is the Exclusive 
Form of Persuasion 
V. Argument is Necessary in Influencing Pro- 
fessional Buyers 
VI. Argument Sometimes an Effective Form of 

Flattery 
VII. Hollingworth's List of Conditions that De- 
mand Argumentation 
VIII. "System's" List of Conditions that Demand 
Argumentation 






^ I 1 



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• > :■■ r-- i. t- 



CHAPTER V 




' ij 



in- iiiiiH— Mill— I 



:^i 




WHEN TO USE ARGUMENTS IN 
INFLUENCING MEN 

Both Argument and Suggestion are Ef- 
fective IN Influencing Men 

The four preceding chapters have made it 
evident that both argument and suggestion are 
to be used in influencing men. Under some 
conditions men can not be influenced except by- 
arguments; under other conditions arguments 
are less potent than suggestions. Some men are 
especially susceptible to one of the forms; cer- 
tain classes of decisions may be secured by one 
of the methods of deciding more readily than 
by another. Furthermore some men are 
naturally experts in presenting arguments while 
others are most successful when avoiding argu- 
ments and depending upon suggestions. 

With our present incomplete knowledge of 
business psychology it is impossible to define all 
the conditions under which the business man 
should make use of argument or suggestion. 
However, enough has been ascertained to pro- 
vide the business man with a fairly satisfactory 
chart for his guidance. 

87 






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88 Influencing Men in Business 

In the following discussion special attention 
will be given to advertising because our psy- 
chological knowledge of that branch of business 
is well advanced, because advertising is a good 
typical form of business, and because it has a 
definiteness and concreteness about it that 
makes It good as an illustration. Each business 
man should be able to make the applications to 
his own business, for men are largely the same 
in all forms of business and industry. 

1. Argument Preferred in Exploiting 
Any New Thing: Educational Cam- 
paign 

That argument is needed in exploiting new 
goods is a statement that holds true of all mer- 
chandise whether a new class of goods or 
merely a new brand of an old class. 

I secured a phonograph and records for the 
language phone method of teaching a foreign 
language because of argument. Until I had 
considered these arguments the suggestion that 
I should secure the equipment would have had 
no effect upon me. In selling similar novel de- 
vices some sort of a protracted educational 
campaign is ordinarily a prerequisite. The 



I 



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When to Use Arguments 



89 



typewriter which I purchased was a make new 
to me and I would not have been influenced by 
suggestion to make such a purchase, but I did 
yield to what seemed to me at the time suffi- 
cient reason for my action. 

In exploiting a new brand or a new make of 
a well-known article, the arguments should be 
devoted to presenting the new features even 
when the article as a whole may best be sold by 
suggestion. Thus when a new type of piano- 
player is put on the market, if it is one that in- 
creases the orchestral effect of the piano, this 
fact should be presented in the form of an 
argument for the purchase of this particular 
player. The public should be persuaded by 
arguments to select this particular make, if they 
purchase at all, and then the suggestions to pur- 
chase may be effective in securing immediate 
action. 



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II. Argument Preferred in Securing 
Relatively Important Acts 

Argumentation is the only effective method 
of inducing men to perform important acts. I 
would spend a nickel upon the merest sugges- 
tion that I should do so. I would not spend a 



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90 Influencing Men in Business 

thousand dollars upon suggestion but only as 
the result of deliberation following the pre- 
sentation of arguments. In inducing people to 
spend money, arguments are essential if the 
amount of the purchase is any appreciable pro- 
portion of their total capital. In inducing 
people to purchase, the power of suggestion 
decreases directly with the increase of the pro- 
portion of the cost of the article to their total 
wealth. The working of suggestion is then not 
dependent directly upon the size of the pur- 
chase bufupon the proportion of the cost to the 
total wealth. It may mean as much for me to 
purchase a current magazine as for a capitalist 
to purchase a block of new stock. In such an 
instance suggestion might be equally effective in 
inducing me to purchase the magazine and the 
capitalist to purchase an interest in a seasoned 
stock. 

Whether in the field of commerce or of in- 
dustry, arguments are necessary in persuading 
men to change their customs and habits. The 
introduction of the piece-rate system into a 
community accustomed to fixed wages demands 
arguments. To induce men to enter unknown 
fields of activity demands an educational cam- 
paign based on arguments. 



When to Use Arguments 



91 



r 



III. , Argument Preferred in Exploiting 
Anything Having Unusual Talk- 
ing Points 
Occasionally staples or specialties which have 
altogether unusual talking points are placed on 
the market. In some instances the price is 
actually lower than that of competing goods. 
Thus some of the newer brands of sewing 
machines which sell for $40 are fully equal to 
some of the older machines that are sold for 
$60. Some of the newer makes of automobiles 
are fully equal to the older makes which sell 
for several hundred dollars more per car. 

Goods are sometimes placed on the market 
which are clearly superior to all competing 
goods and yet cost no more or but little more. 
When the Domino lump sugar was first adver- 
tised it was cleaner, more convenient, and more 
attractive than any other sugar on the market. 
The Domino Crystal Salt was at one time the 
only salt on the market which did not cake and 
which ran freely from the container. The 
Gillette safety razor had very decided points of 
superiority over any of its original competitors. 
When goods have such talking points on 
price or quality as those here cited they should 
be used as the basis for arguments for the pur- 



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I>'fl™nc,ng Men ,n Business 



chase of the eoods Tu 

Poims should be empha^"d H"™'" "™"8 

f the possible cusTom tha "b" ^"T'^'^ 

f compering l;„es. Thrcut"/°°f ,"'"• •*» 

•° «« logical reasoning TrT/Ih ;;''' ""^ '^'l 

- ' 0/ their deliberat "Vi^/f f d''^ "" 
balancing of acconnfc • r * definite 

Wth the'„n„s„aTa"gl'e"„,^^°' *' S""^' 
.«"ing goods may b^ «Td ^f ^f" " "''' "' 
influence men. l/thl , f '" '"^P" to 
and convincing arLmel 1' IT^" ""''''''> 
he u,i,i«d as 'far S7„: b r"lf ': ""^^ ''■°"'^ 
being made to mdu-ZJ^T " '"™Pt ''s 

feed salaries to the p™;^'" '" ''"^^ '™"' 
to increase their L^!/ '>"'"" '""^ also 

»en should be Ibor cTeZ IT'""^' '"' 
arguments that th^^Jr , ^ convincing ' 

-, increased fe^sld^r-"- 

IV. Argument Preferred when It k . 

ExcEus,VE Form ot Pe^ Js^o'^ ™' 

They see other, p rctsinf 1°' ^''^""^'"8- 

°' *»■> «ends /urcha::;^bt-t:: t^ 



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When to Use Arguments 



93 



subjected to the influence of imitation. The 
salesman attempts to sell them the advertised 
goods and so brings his personal influence to 
bear upon them. They inspect the goods and 
so supplement the words of the advertisements 
with observation. They may have had other 
and favorable experiences with the goods or 
the house and so in one way or another they 
are predisposed to do that which the advertis- 
ing attempts to induce them to do. With cus- 
tomers thus predisposed to purchase, sugges- 
tion may be sufficient, but where some influence 
other than advertising is not exerted and where 
the customers are not predisposed to make the 
purchase, there is need of **reason-why'' copy, 
of **data-built" copy. Facts, data, reasons, must 
be presented in sufficient abundance to enable 
the uninterested possible customer to overcome 
his indifference and to see why it is to his in- 
terest to purchase the goods. 

Occasionally advertising is the exclusive sell- 
ing plan. This is frequently the exclusive 
method •'employed by mail-order houses. In 
such instances it is wise to present arguments 
pretty fully so that the readers may have ade- 
quate data for accepting or rejecting the goods. 
The advertisement may well be of the sort 



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94 Influencing Men in Business 

copy.'" etc '' "'■''^^"■^^y ^°Py'" "data-built 

V. Argument is Necessary in Influenc- 
ing Professional Buyers 

In selling to professional buyers mere M,«r 
gestion s not sufficienf Q. • . ^* 

nIo.« I, u , '"'^'^"^- Suggestion has its 
p ace here but there is absolute necessity for 
reasons why." The merchandise must be 
shown to meet the demands of the coluLr 
o such goods. The professional buyer haMt ! 
ally analyzes and compares, at least more than 
ordinary purchasers. The goods offered do not 
stand out m his mind as unrelated things bu 

same class. The professional buyer does not 

caut T "r'"''"r '^^^"^^ '^ '^ ^-^ ^"t Z 
cause It IS ^.//.r. In order that he may be 

assisted to formulate this judgment of bette 

^^e^merchant must furnish him with adequate 

What has been said of methods of selling to 
professional buyers may be applied directly to 
methods of selling technical equipment and all 
gc^ds^tW are sold strictly according tot^^^^^^^ 



i 



When to Use Arguments 



95 



VI. Argument Sometimes an Effective 
Form of Flattery 
Argumentation is often advisable because 
people like to assume that they are following 
their reason. The arguments in favor of an 
automobile may not be comprehended and yet 
after reading the arguments the reader may de- 
cide to purchase the particular make because he 
assumes that the arguments would convince him 
if he could understand them. In advertise- 
ments of Grape Nuts the statement, '^There's 
a reason," has weight even though the reader 
has no idea as to what the reason is to which 
reference seems to be made. We often demand 
that appeals should be made to the reason and 
until such an appeal has been made we are 
unwilling to decide. We are flattered by at- 
tempts to convince us with reasons and so the 
"reason-why" copy is more successful in ad- 
vertising than one might anticipate even in in- 
stances where decisions are not the result of 
deliberation. The mere presence of arguments 
may often allay suspicion, though not an argu- 
ment is read. Even where the arguments are 
read, their significance may not be appreciated 
in the least and yet the reader may be so flat- 
tered by the presence of the arguments that 



When to Use Arguments 



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96 Influencing Men in Business 

they are as effective in securing a decision as 
they would be if the arguments were fully 
understood. 



VII. HOLLINGWORTH^S LiST OF CONDITIONS 

THAT Demand Argumentation 

"Argument .... is especially fitted, by its 
nature and by the way it is reacted to, ... . 
for articles which are in themselves, or from 
the use to which they are put, impersonal, 
utilitarian, instrumental; and for articles which 
are intended not so much to fill present needs 
only, but also to create new needs or desires — 
such articles as books, plows, buttons, hammers, 
trucks, etc. — in general, to those things which 
partake of the nature of a tool." 



97 



vertisements needed to induce an unintended w} 
expenditure of money, or needed to bring ^ 
about a radical change in a man's usual way of 
buying, or an innovation in his habits — as buy- 
ing from a dealer not usually patronized by 
him, buying by mail instead of from a dealer, 
having an arficle made to order instead of buy- 
ing ready-made, or vice versa, or hunting for a 
store that can supply the article.'* 



i 



"II 



VIII. "System's'' List of Conditions that 
Demand Argumentation 

System's Magazine for September, 19 12, In 
"How to Advertise to Men," attempts to 
classify the conditions in advertising that de- 
mand dependence upon an argumentative form 
of copy. The conclusion is reached that the 
copy should be argumentative whenever the "ad- 



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CHAPTER VI 

WHEN TO USE SUGGESTIONS IN 
INFLUENCING MEN 

OUTLINE 



I. Suggestion Preferred when Inadequate Time is 

Given for Arguments 
II. Suggestion Preferred in Securing Action Fol- 
lowing Conviction 
III. Suggestion Preferred as a Supplementary Method 

of Convincing 
IV. Suggestion Preferred in Dealing with the Gen- 
eral Public 
V. Suggestion Preferred for Securing Immediate 

Action 
VI. Hollingworth's List of Conditions in Selling 

Goods that Demand Suggestion 
VII. Argument or Suggestion: Resume 



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CHAPTER VI 

WHEN TO USE SUGGESTIONS IN 
INFLUENCING MEN 

1. Suggestion Preferred when Inade- 
quate Time is Given for Arguments 

An argument can not be presented in as brie^ 
a form as a suggestion. If people would stop 
to read the arguments appearing in advertise- 
ments, then doubtless all advertisers would 
make extensive appeals to the reason. By care- 
ful investigation it has been determined that but 
few people spend much time in reading adver- 
tisements. It has been estimated that the 
average reader does not spend more than ten 
minutes in reading the advertisements appear- 
ing in a single issue of a monthly magazine, a 
daily or a weekly paper. That is to say, the 
reader of a magazine glances through one hun- 
dred pages of advertisements in less than ten 
minutes. Advertisements in daily papers are 
read equally fast. A common practice is to 
turn over all the pages, to glance at all the ad- 
vertisements, excepting the smallest ones, but to 
read few or none of them. For this great class 
of potential buyers arguments are usually lost. 

lOI 



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102 Influencing Men in Business 

If a single suggestion Is given by means of a 
picture or of display type, the advertisement 
may be effective with thousands of persons who 
would not take the time or the trouble to read 
the arguments. 

The question concerning the relative merits 
of arguments and suggestions in advertisements 
IS not whether people are affected more by the 
reading of arguments than by the reading of 
the suggestions. The question is whether the 
argument or the suggestion Is the more effective 
\ method of appealing to the average man who 
reads all sorts of publications, who rides on 
street cars and passes by the bill-boards. The 
probable answer Is that most people are af- 
fected more by suggestions In advertisements 
than by argumentations simply because they 
will not take time to read the arguments to the 
same extent that they do take time to read the 
suggestions. The long argument Is read by a 
few and these few are much Impressed; the 
short argument Is read by many and they are 
all a little affected. Other things being equal, 
the number of persons who will read an adver- 
tisement decreases directly as the size of the 
copy Increases. The effect produced by the 
reading of the advertisement increases directly 



When to Use Suggestions 



103 



with the size of the copy and the time consumed 
In reading it 

II. Suggestion Preferred in Securing 
Action Following Conviction 

In advertising goods thoroughly known, 
argument Is often superfluous and mere sug- 
gestion is adequate. Most magazine readers 
are convinced that Ivory Soap Is a good soap. 
All that is left for the manufacturer to do is to 
give the suggestion which will lead to the pur- 
chase. If it is deemed wise to convince the 
public that the familiar goods possess a par- 
ticularly desirable quality this may often be 
accomplished by suggestion instead of by argu- 
mentation, provided the goods are already well 
established In the confidence of the people. A 
familiar example is that of the attempt to con- 
vince the public that Ivory Soap is particularly 
pure and delicate. This suggestion of purity 
and delicacy Is given by means of artistic pic- 
tures showing cultivated people using the soap 
and using it for delicate work. The suggestion 
is also given by means of the repetition of the 
phrase, 99 44/100 per cent pure. General 
readers are affected by this suggestion, and 



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104 Influencing Men in Business 

have come to the conclusion that Ivory Soap Is 
particularly pure even though they are quite 
unable to cite a single reason for such a con- 
elusion. 

In our task of persuading men, perhaps In 
most mstances, we attempt to get them to do 
what they already know they should do. The 
superintendent does not have to convince his 
men that they should render better service. The 
function of the superintendent Is rather to get 
men to do what they already know they should 
do and what In fact they themselves desire to 
do. The right suggestion helps the men and en- 
courages them to do what without suggestion Is 
impossible for them. The suggestion to the 
desired action needs to be frequently repeated 
that It may be constantly In mind. This repeat- 
mg of the same suggestion over and over again 
has a cumulative effect which Is greater than 
could be secured by lengthy or by diverse 
arguments. 

III. Suggestion Preferred as a Supple- 

MENTARY MeTHOD OF CONVINCING 

Much advertising Is Intended not to sell 
goods but to supplement other selling methods. 



When to Use Suggestions 105 

This is true not only of street car and poster 
advertising but also of much advertising waged 
in magazines and newspapers. The supple- 
mentary nature of advertising is particularly 
apparent in advertising such things as automo- 
biles, typewriters, dictographs and in all forms 
of insurance and financial advertising. The 
function of the advertisement in such instances 
is to get the potential purchaser in a favorable 
attitude toward the commodity and then the 
consummation of the sale is left to the sales- 
man, booklet, or catalogue, or to some other 
person or selling device. This supplementary 
advertising may sometimes use arguments, but 
its chief dependence is upon some form of sug- 
gestion. 

Street-car and out-door advertising is in the 
main only supplementary and hence suggestion 
is extensively used, while logical arguments play 
a less important part. In advertising goods 
which are to be purchased at a later time and 
only after inspection, it is not necessary to con- 
vince the customer by reasons presented in the 
advertisement but to suggest some single fact 
which may be sufficiently compelling to cause 
him to inspect the goods. In this way the sup- 
plementary advertising greatly simplifies the 



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1 06 Influencing Men in Business 

task of the clerk, the drummer, or the selling 
plan whatever it be. 

^ In persuading men, logical reasoning is prac- 
tically never to be used alone. After the argu- 
ments have been presented skilful suggestions 
should be used as a supplement. This supple- 
ment often changes threatened defeat into suc- 
cess. The skilful pleader before a jury, the 
wise politician, and the successful superin- 
tendent of men, all alike are compelled to 
resort to suggestion to supplement their argu- 
ments in their attempts to influence men. 

IV. Suggestion Preferred in Dealing 
with the General Public 

If we should divide all customers into the 
two classes, professional buyers and the general 
public, then in appealing to this latter class 
special attention should be given to suggestion. 
In an advertisement containing both a good 
suggestion and a good argument, the sugges- 
tion is read often and the argument rarely. 
From infancy we have been accustomed to re- 
spond to suggestions so frequently that we 
follow this habit in purchasing merchandise 
even though we ought to make such purchases 



When to Use Suggestions 107 

only after due deliberation. Deliberation is a 
process of thought which is very elaborate and 
very exhausting. The general purchaser — ^the 
housewife — does not ordinarily rise to such an 
undertaking but contents herself with a process 
very closely approximating the working of pure 
suggestion. Even though she begins to deliber- 
ate, the process is likely to be cut short by the 
effect of a clever suggestion. A suggestive pic- 
ture means more to her than any possible mass- 
ing of facts and figures. Such a suggestive 
phrase as "Spotless Town" when associated in 
her mind with Sapolio becomes more effective 
in selling her a washing compound than any 
statement concerning its chemical purity. The 
suggestive force of imitation is with her so 
powerful that she follows the actions of others 
with more confidence than the findings of her 
own deliberations. 

V. Suggestion Preferred for Securing 
Immediate Action 

President Hadley of Yale some time since 
delivered an address in the Auditorium at Chi- 
cago. At the time he was suffering from a very 
severe cold. In the midst of his remarks he 



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io8 Influencing Men in Business 

stopped, remarked that he was a victim of a 
cold and cleared his throat Immediately not 
less than a hundred persons in the audience 
began to clear their throats and to cough till it 
was difficult to hear him speak for some 
minutes. Not long ago I was in a company 
where a man in a conspicuous position yawned. 
Immediately a score of persons were affected by 
the suggestion and unconsciously imitated his 
action. The peculiarity of suggested action is 
that the action follows at once upon the giving 
of the suggestion. The result of presenting 
arguments is deliberation with its attendant 
hesitation. 

Where any sort of an educational campaign 
is to be waged preceding the desired action, 
arguments are desirable. When immediate 
action is sought and no attempt is being made 
to educate, suggestion is preferred. In creating 
sentiment in favor of a magazine, data must be 
presented concerning the virtues of the maga- 
zine. When the magazine is out and on the 
newsstands and the purpose of the advertise- 
ment is to secure immediate purchase, then 
suggestion is superior to argument. The 
greatest suggestion in securing immediate sales 
of a magazine by means of advertising is re- 



When to Use Suggestions 109 

puted to have been the advertising done by the 
Delineator when they forced us to purchase by 
the use of suggestion, "J^st get the Delineator !" 



VI. Hollingworth's List of Conditions 
IN Selling Goods that Demand 
Suggestion 

HoUIngworth's classification Is not so much 
the conditions in selling goods that demand sug- 
gestion, as it is a classification of the kinds of 
goods that may be sold advantageously by 
suggestion. According to the classification 
which he recently proposed, suggestion is well 

adapted : 

"i. For all personal articles, the use of 
which is intimate and private, as toilet articles, 
gifts, stationery, etc. 

"2. For articles of luxury, display and adorn- 
ment, as jewelry, fancy dress goods, feathers 
and plumes, flowers, etc. 

"3. For articles enjoyed in themselves or 
for their own sake, rather than for remote 
service which they may render, as drinks, musi- 
cal instruments, sweetmeats, toys, etc, 

"4. For articles calculated to promote the 
hodily safety of the individual or of those de- 



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no Influencing Men in Business 

pendent on him, as disinfectants, safety devices, 
insurance, weapons of defense, etc. 
5. For all food products. 
"6. For all clothing which tends to be orna- 
mental rather than utilitarian in character, as 
ties, collars, laces, canes, etc." 

VII. Argument or Suggestion : Resum£ 

To influence men effectively is no simple task. 
Some men seem naturally gifted with this power 
and are able to accomplish as much intuitively 
as are other men after much study devoted to 
the subject. The men with such talents as well 
as those less generously endowed may increase 
their skill in influencing men by proceeding 
scientifically at their task. The two methods 
available for influencing men are those of argu- 
ment and suggestion. Which general type to 
employ is a problem that can not be easily 
solved. In attempting to secure light upon the 
subject and to choose wisely between argument 
and suggestion, the business man can not safely 
follow the advice of his chance counselor nor 
may he follow precedents, for there is no uni- 
formity among counselors nor among successful 
precedents. 



When to Use Suggestions 



III 



If the business man Is an advertiser and is 
considering methods of influencing the public, 
he can decide wisely only after a careful analy- 
sis of the problem confronting him, both be- 
cause of the nature of his goods and because 
of the nature of the responses that may be 
secured from his possible customers. If his 
goods are new, an educational campaign must 
be waged in which logical arguments have a 
prominent place. If his goods have unusual 
talking points, these should be presented, if he 
depends upon advertising exclusively, he must 
then supply his customers with adequate data 
for purchasing the goods. If he is selling 
mainly to professional buyers, arguments are 
essential. If his possible customers may be in- 
duced to glance at his advertisement but may 
not be induced to read arguments, then argu- 
ments should in the main be eliminated and 
suggestions made effective. If his goods are 
thoroughly known to the customers, a mere sug- 
gestion may be more effective than any possible 
argument. If the advertisements are depended 
upon not to sell the goods but merely to famil- 
iarize the public with the goods or to make 
them favorably disposed towards the goods, 
then suggestion Is all the case demands. The 



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112 Influencing Men in Business 

general public responds more readily to suffges- 
tions than to arguments; hence in dealing with 
this large group it is usually wise to construct 
the copy according to this habitual method of 
response of the general public. Immediate 
action IS more often secured by suggestion than 
by argument. 

Whatever the end sought through persua- 
sion, the problem is similar to that of selling 
goods by means of printed forms of advertis- 
ing and the solution of the problem is equally 
complex and equally important in every line of 
Dusmess. 

After the business man has analyzed methods 
ot persuading men and after he has decided to 
employ either argument or suggestion, then a 
further problem awaits him— How shall he 
construct his arguments or his suggestions so 
they will secure the maximum results > The 
next two chapters will deal with these practical 
problems. 



/ 



CHAPTER VII 
MAKING ARGUMENTS EFFECTIVE 



OUTLINE 

The Requisites of Completed Deliberation 
I. Creating an Adequate Idea of What is Offered 
II. The HOW Supplements the WHY in an Argument 

n/ ,x?^. ^l^""^ ""^ ^^^^'""^ ^"^ Sentiment in an Argument 
IV. Weighmg the Evidence 

V. Concluding the Argum£nt 



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CHAPTER VII 
MAKING ARGUMENTS EFFECTIVE 



The Requisites of Completed Delibera- 
tion 

As shown in Chapter II, "An Analysis of 
Deliberation," we present arguments in order 
that we may make people deliberate. That 
their deliberation may be complete they must 
do five things : 

1. They must have an adequate idea of the 
thing which we are attempting to persuade them 
to choose or to do. 

2. They must have a clear idea of just what 
they must do to choose the thing proposed. 

3. They must be led to attach value to our 
offer. 

4. They must consciously weigh the evidence 
which we have presented in comparison with 
reasons for selecting other things or for not 
acting at all. 

5. And finally they must be led to make a 
more or less logical deduction resulting in con- 
viction and the performance of the act which we 
arc advocating. 

The strength of an argument can not be 

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ii6 Influencing Men in Business 

judged by its phraseology but depmds exclu- 
sively upon the success it has in c lusing per- 
sons to perform these five essential steps in a 
typical act of deliberation, 

L Creating an Adequate Idea of What is 
Offered 

An argument must give data concerning the 
thing proposed. The skill is not so much in giv- 
ing much data as in giving the most effective 
data. The real essential nature of most things 
does not consist in the material substances which 
compose them but in the relationships and func- 
tions which they sustain. Water is not ade- 
quately described by stating that it is composed 
of two parts of hydrogen to one of oxygen. 
The important thing about water is the uses 
which may be made of it. No one is able to 
give an exhaustive description of anything. The 
relationships which even a simple thing sustains 
are innumerable. A bar of soap may be com- 
pletely described so far as Its chemical constitu- 
ents are concerned but no exploiter of soap has 
been able to tell us all that might be said about 
his soap. There Is no end to the possible uses, 
the possible methods of securing it, the possible 



Making Arguments Effective 117 

savings and delights which may be secured from 

it. 

In presenting an argument in favor of any 
proposition it is not necessary to present much 
data but only such data as Is essential to the pur- 
pose in hand. The question then naturally arises 
as to what data should be presented and what 
omitted. This question can not be answered 
merely by a study of the thing offered for sale, 
or of the act desired, but rather by a study of 
the persons who are to be affected by the 
argument. 

Professor Harlow Gale attempted to dis- 
cover the most essential data for selling soap. 
Under the conditions of his experiment he found 
these six reasons for buying soap to be ranked 
as follows, the most Important being given 
first: 

1. Purity by government test 

2. Old firm 

3. Home Industry 

4. Attractiveness 

5. Special sale ^ 

6. Souvenir prize 

In "Advertising and Selling*' for February, 
19 13, W. A. Shryer presents the following 



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ii8 Influencing Men in Business 

classifications which he regards as important in 
selling various classes of merchandise : 

The dominant primary appeals: (i) pride, 
(2) acquisitiveness, (3) health, (4) utility. 
The secondary or subsidiary appeals : ( i ) clean- 
liness, (2) caution, (3) taste, (4) ease, (5) 
beauty, (6) sentiment, (7) pleasure. 

HoUingworth arranges the data making the 
strongest appeals in general as follows: In the 
first group are the appeals to health, cleanliness, 
science, time saved, appetizing, efficiency, safety, 
durability, quality, modernity, family affection. 
In the second group are reputation, guarantee, 
sympathy, medicinal, imitation, elegance, cour- 
tesy, economy, affirmation, sport, hospitality. 
In the third and last group fall substitutes, clan 
feeling, nobbiness, recommendation, social su- 
periority, imported, and beauty. 

In my study and analysis of advertising 
successes I have found many successful argu- 
ments based on data (concepts, appeals, mo- 
tives, reasons, etc.) other than those in the lists 
here reproduced. This fact does not in the least 
prove the futility of these lists, but it does em- 
phasize the necessity of an analysis of the goods, 
the customers, and the methods of distribution 
in every advertising campaign. 



Making Arguments Effective 119 

If we assemble all the possible data for argu- 
ments, scores or even hundreds of convincing 
points may be made in exploiting almost any 
commodity. Almost all goods offered for sale 
could make a majority of the appeals mentioned 
above, but the order of efficiency of the different 
motives would vary from one commodity to 
another. 

Most salesmen get Into the habit of present- 
ing their goods In a particular way and so fail 
to realize the possible range of appeals that 
could be made for the goods. Let any man 
check up his practice with these lists and he 
doubtless would find some appeals which he is 
neglecting and which might be very effective. 



11. The how Supplements the WHY in 
AN Argument 

If by arguments I am trying to induce you to 
establish a factory In my town I first present 
reasons why your factory would be particularly 
profitable there. If I should be able to give 
enough arguments in favor of the proposition, 
you doubtless would figure out for yourself how 
you would go at it to establish the factory. You 
are not convinced, however, till, in imagination, 



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120 Influencing Men in Business 

you have established your business there. If, 
when In imagination you have projected yourself 
into the future, no insurmountable difficulties 
occur to you, you may be convinced and decide 
to act. Before you are convinced you are likely 
to figure out how my proposition could be car- 
ried out. I would greatly increase my chances of 
convincing you if instead of confining myself to 
why you should build the factory, I should de- 
vote much of my presentation to describing 
vividly just what you would have to do to follow 
out the plan I am proposing. If by my words 
you are led to imagine yourself as establishing 
the factory, the mental image thus formed in 
your mind is more of a ''clincher" than any rea- 
son for the action that could possibly be offered. 
If I am selling, by means of advertising, one 
of the best known household commodities, my 
sargument is incomplete unless I state where the 
goods may be secured. Even though the goods 
may be had at every grocery store, and even 
though every possible purchaser may know 
where to get them, yet the advertisement should 
contain a statement as to how the goods can be 
secured. The function of such a statement is 
to cause the possible purchaser to imagine him- 
self as going to the store to secure the goods. 



,j^ 



Making Arguments Effective 121 

He might possibly think out how to get the 
goods as soon as he had read the descriptions of 
my goods, but my statement of the necessary 
means for securing the goods makes easy this 

essential step. 

As a matter of fact there Is no household 
commodity so well known that every possible 
purchaser knows just where and how to secure 
it The salesman is so well acquainted with his 
goods and knows so well how customers may 
secure them that he is inclined to forget that 
one of his special duties is to educate new cus- 
tomers as to where and how the goods may be 

had. 

Even though an advertisement has made me 
want a thing, I am inclined to procrastinate un- 
less all the steps necessary for securing the 
goods are clearly in my mind. 

I decided to try a particular make of shoes 
and to secure them at a convenient time when in 
Chicago. As a matter of fact I did not know 
exactly where they were on sale. I could easily 
have found out but I didn't, so I have procras- 
tinated the purchase which I would have made 
if the place for securing the shoes had been 

definitely in mind. 

Many advertisers neglect to emphasize the 






i 



M 



• H 



122 Influencing Men in Business 

means for securing the goods which they exploit. 
The goods may have general distribution and 
may be on sale at all stores handling that gen- 
eral class of merchandise, but many possible 
customers are not aware of that fact. They 
may be convinced of the desirability of securing 
the goods, but they fail to purchase because of 
the uncertainty as to the place or means of 
securing the goods. 

Furthermore, the emphasis upon the steps 
necessary to secure the goods acts not only as a 
source of information for possible new custom- 
ers, but also as a most powerful stimulus to 
action for both new and old customers. 

A large proportion of all advertisements of 
goods having a general distribution fails to 
make use of this psychological fact. In the 
current issue of one of the leading American 
magazines there are 65 full-page advertise- 
ments of goods having general distribution. Of 
these 65 advertisements, 22 state with some 
completeness the means of securing the goods. 
Such expressions as these are used in the ad- 
vertisements : 

"Your druggist and your grocer have X — ." 

"Price $3.00, $4.00, $5.00, to $15.00, at 
leading dealers everywhere,'* 



Making Arguments Effective 123 

"Write for catalogue B and name of nearest 

dealer." 

"Sold by all first-class dealers." 
"Sold by all grocers, 10 cents a package." 
Of the 65 advertisements 7 give no hint as 
to methods of securing the goods — no price, no 
address, no statement that the goods might be 
had at local dealers, no information of hint as 
to what action is desired of possible customers. 
The remaining 59 advertisements have in- 
adequate information as to methods of securing 
the goods. In fact I can not learn from some 
of the advertisements whether the goods adver- 
tised are on sale, for instance, in Evanston or 
even in Chicago. 

\ This failure to emphasize the means of se- 
curing the goods advertised is the most glaring 
weakness in advertising at the present time, and 
renders ineffectual many otherwise urgent 
arguments. 

Sign-posts are not necessary in primitive vil- 
lages. In great cities sign-posts are needed on 
every corner and these must be supplemented 
by courteous policemen. Modern methods of 
merchandising have transcended the few re- 
quirements of the village shopkeeper. There 
are so many possible roads which the customer 



^ 



I 



1' 



'H 



\t 






124 Influencing Men in Business 

may take that he is coming to depend more and 
more on tihe "sign-posts" for his directions. 
He IS unwilling to think for himself where 
others will do it for him more satisfactorily. 

The modern merchant can not be too specific 
in his directions as to the exact steps necessary 
in answering an advertisement or purchasing 
goods. It is an important question : How may 
the advertiser best present to the public the 
method of securing the goods? 

The most fundamental condition in any such 
advertising is that the method of securing the 
goods should be made clear to all possible cus- 
tomers who are not familiar with the goods. 
Even if the commodity has been on the market 
for decades and if it is to be had at all grocers 
or druggists, the place where it can be found 
should be stated in every advertisement. The 
construction of the advertisement should be 
such that when a new possible customer reads 
the advertisement there arises In his mind a 
picture of the place where the goods can be had 
and of the method of securing them. The 
advertiser can not assume that the possible cus- 
tomer will use any mental effort in creating this 
mental picture. He can not be depended upon 
to do any constructive thinking, and unless the 



Making Arguments Effective 125 

advertiser has made the method of securing the 
goods so plain that the mental picture must be 
seen by the new customer, he will not see It and 
will leave the advertisement with no thought of 
securing the goods advertised; or at least he 
will be inclined to procrastinate the actual pur- 
chase because of his mental inertia. 

The wise salesman induces his customer to 
try on the clothing, to drive the automobile, to 
play the musical instrument, etc. The wise 
advertiser presents the goods, so far as pos- 
sible. In such a way that the customer will not 
be compelled to use any original thought In con- 
ceiving of all the steps involved in the securing 
of the goods. 

III. The Place of Feeling and Sentiment 
IN AN Argument 

Much advertising fails to get at the feelings 
and emotions, the instincts and sentiments. It 
must not only convince the public that they 
OUGHT to act, but it must present Its proposi- 
tion so that it will make them WANTJXLact 

We are late in reaching the pew but early at 
the bleachers. We put off writing to cousins 
and aunts, but the fiancee is answered by ''return 



Il 





li 







X 



9 



r ' 



126 Influencing Men in Business 

mail." The dictates of reason may be resisted 
but not the promptings of sentiment and emo- 
tions. 

We put off the things we know we OUGHT to 
do but not the things we want to do. 

Almost every one who reads the advertise- 
ments of automobiles hankers after a machine, 
but unless his income is adequate his better 
judgment convinces him that it would be fool- 
ish extravagance to make the purchase. In this 
case we seem to have hesitation produced by 
the judgment even when the purchase is 
prompted by intense feelings. But the judg- 
ment is easily convinced of the wisdom of any 
act which excites intense desire. In the case of 
the automobile the judgment easily recognizes 
a fanciful need and yields to the promptings of 

desire. 

A current advertisement takes advantage of 
this psychological situation and makes a most 
clever appeal to possible purchasers of auto- 
mobiles. The following extract from the text 
of the advertisement is very adroit: *Tou may 
think you don't WANT a motor car. But there 
isn't any question about your needing one. 
There is a difference between wanting a thing 
and needing it There is nothing that 



Making Arguments Effective 127 

you could invest the money In that will pay you 
such a big dividend in the saving of your time 
in business and the saving of your health for 
years, as the purchase of a motor car. A good 
thing is a better thing the sooner you get it." 

If this advertisement is able to convince a 
man that he OUGHT to get the car he will do 
so at once because he already wants to pur- 
chase it. When desire Is surging we are easily 
convinced that we ought to act, and hence the 
act follows immediately. When the judgment 
is convinced but no desire Is enkindled, pro- 
crastination keeps the Intended act from tak- 
ing place. Many articles of merchandise may 
be so presented that the public will desire to 
purchase them. Or they may be so presented 
that the public will merely be convinced that 
the goods OUGHT to be secured. The practical 
problem then arises as to methods of making 
the public WANT to act and want to follow out 
specific directions. 

Advertisers have been successful In accom- 
plishing this purpose in various ways. Some 
of these successful methods are worthy of 
consideration. 

Goods offered as means of gaining social 
prestige make their appeals to one of the most 



I 



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III 



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I 




■ II 



P}ll 



,28 Influencing Men in Business 

profound of the human mstmcts. In monarchies 

■™:rrC- wS,":h;c:weaUempe,o 

^™;e merchandise used, by the "sweU and 
Xger" is absurd, but it makes it Poss.We for 
!r advertiser to secure more responses tl^an 
mkht oA rw se be possible. As an illustrafo,, 
As fact we need but to loolc at the successful 
^dve isements of clothing ^t^'bdes etc 

^e quality of »he goods *em»^'^" j„7 "° 
seem to be so important as the apparent pres 
[reiven by the possession of the goods. 
"S which are presented as suppl,.ng a 

need long felt by the public - J^^^f J*^ 
™,f delav In the case also of objects wnici 
supply any of the fundamental instinct,ye needs, 
hfchancls are that we shall act "".ngly^ 
The instinctive desire to w,n social W'-'^al^ 
but a typical illustration of an appeal to the 

fundamental instincts. .1.1,. :j,,s 

Our feelings may be awakened by he da 

themselves, by 4e manner m ^^f .*^;to 

c-.«fpr1 or bv a combination ot tne two. 

m'ide tf -vo^' viands is pleasing in itself 

„Lhe manner of presenting the idea may add 

I'ch toTt:^easing val«.when presented as is 



Making Arguments Effective 129 

done, for example, by the National Biscuit 
Company In placing Nabisco before the public. 
In the advertisements of Nabisco an attempt 
was made for many months to please by means 
of fairy maids serving the product, by means 
of alluring verbal descriptions of the goods 
and by perfect harmony between the Illustra- 
tion and the type matter. 

The man with the proper imagination is able 
to conceive of any commodity in such a way 
that It becomes an object of emotion to him and 
to those to whom he imparts his picture, and 
hence creates desire rather than a mere feeling 
of ought. It would be hard to conceive of any 
more prosaic things than correspondence 
schools, dental cream, billiard tables, tobacco, 
soap, flour, fountain pens, foods, musical In- 
struments, automobiles, heating plants, radia- 
tors, financial securities, and insurance. In the 
mind of the artist these homely commodities 
are transformed Into objects that awaken our 
sentiments and aesthetic feelings. The adver- 
tisement reproduced as Figure i presents to us 
a correspondence school in such a way that our 
sympathies are aroused at once. Figure 2 pre- 
sents the telegraph and telephone in a new light 
to most of us, and In such a way that it assumes 



' i 




I 4 

Ik 



'ni 



ii 



!■: 



|i 




|; I: 



Ii 



130 Influencing Men in Business 

a sentimental value In our minds. Figure 3 
presents a tooth paste in such a way that the 
presentation awakens our appreciation of the 
beauty of the mother and child, who are made 
even more attractive because of the use of the 
tooth paste. Figure 4 is realistic as well as 
artistic. It makes us all feel that a billiard 
table is a most desirable thing. Figure 5 
spreads a halo of sentiment about a tobacco so 
that even the non-users regret their inability to 
enjoy the pleasures of Velvet Joe. All these 
five advertisements — and many others — present 
their merchandise in such a way that a senti- 
mental value attaches to the goods advertised. 
They not only please us by the method of pre- 
senting the goods, but they also cause us to 
ascribe to the goods themselves something of 
sentimental value. 

The advertiser should be a good business 
man and should know the goods to be exploited. 
He should be a practical psychologist and know 
the human emotions and sentiments. He should 
also be a man with a fertile imagination that 
he may be able to think of his merchandise in 
its most attractive forms. He must also pre- 
sent his arguments — ^whether picture or type 
matter — in the most artistic manner possible 




.!f% ^ 



<€ 



That coupon 




gave me my start '* 

"It's only a little while ago that I was just where you. 
are now. My work was unpleasant: my pay was small. 
I had my mother to take care of, and it was tough sled- 
ding trying to make ends meet. I hadn't had much 
schooling. I didn't know enough to fill any better job 
than the one I had. 

"One day I saw an advertisement of the 
American School. It told how other men got 
better positions and bigger salaries by taking their 
courses. I didn't see how a correspondence school 
could benefit me. but as long as it didn't cost any- 
thing to mark the coupon I thought it was worth 
investigating at least. I marked the coupon and 
sent it in on the next mail. 

"That was two years apo, and now I'm drawing more 
money evtry wetk than I uaed to get in a month. '* 

If you want a better job, if you want more congenial 
work, if you want a salary that will put you in the cla»* where 

you belong — 

SIGN AND MAIL THE COUPON NOW 

American School 

^ JLof Correspondence. Chicago. USA 



This school has no connection with any other school usinq the mime "amrricnn 




, . Clrrtrlnl K»<rlMwr 

, Elrr. I.ickl A P<>«rrSap<. 

. .F.lrrlriral IVirrM.a 

..Arrbitrcl 

..nnlldiac CoiitrartKr 
. Arrhilrrtiiml llrtfli 
. Sirurtiiral IkraffanaK 
, .MriirliirAl F.iirinrer 
, < wwf r.i. FnrtBecT 
.TiTil Curiaccr 

MrcliaNlnil f itrli>*rr 

.SInm F-rian-r 
. .Maiiirlp«l>:iiKia««r 
.fima FiiriH. F.art**«P 
>6a« Tr»el«r f.mtiw^r 



.tmwftr 

. Rawkkm^r _ 

.Ntrii»rr»pli.r I 
.Priiat* Hecrcury 

Ae«*iiiilaac ■ 

.C<Mt ArMkaHlant ' 

.CrHT4r»Mit An-mt m 

.AndiCsr | 

■ Pirc Im laapn^tar I 
.Fira la*. Ailjn.trr 
.Mr* lam. F\p.r( ■ 

■ liariMr Pirtar. Op'r " 

■ Irriratina l.Bfia«cr I 
.T.ilila RaM 
.rall.(. rrrpmr»t»rf ■ 

■ lata. M.ckaalciaa " 



Namk .... 
AODRISS 



....a......... ...... 



Figure 1 






M 



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I 

V 



■ 




Fairy Magic — Telephone Reality 



A tent large enough to shelter 
his vast army, yet so small that he 
could fold it in his hand, was the 
gift demanded by a certain sultan 
of India of his son, the prince who 
married the fairy Pari-Banou. 

It was not difficult for the fairy 
to produce the tent. When it was 
stretched out, the sultan's army 
conveniently encamped under it 
and, as the army grew, the tent 
extended of its own accord. 

A reality more wonderful than 
Prince Ahmed's magic tent is the 
Bell Telephone. It occupies but a 
few square inches of space on your 



desk or table, and yet extends over 
the entire country. 

When you grasp it in your hand, 
it is as easily possible to talk a 
hundred or a thousand miles away 
as to the nearest town or city. 

In the Bell System, 9,000,000 
telephones are connected and work 
together to take care of the telephone 
needs of the people of this country. 

As these needs grow, and as the 
number of telephone users increases, 
the system must inevitably expand. 
For the Bell System must always 
provide a service adequate to the 
demands of the people. 



American Telephone and Telegraph Company 

And AssocrATED Companies 

One Policy One System Universal Service 

Figure 2 




"And I havegmn^ilfeerto 
thank, who trained me in the habit 
of brushing my teeth twi^^a^^y. 

'* But, Betty, you have som^lung: 
which makes the habit more rof a 
pleasure than a duty, the ddBcious 

COLOaTE'S 

RIB%ON OENTOL CROW 



Reprinted by courtesy of Colgate & Co. 
Figure 3 



1 ' 






INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



f!'"' 




r^HONf^,^^ ^, 



MStMS 
TEUMOUt 



Fairy Magic — Telephone Reality 



. j^' 






A tent large enough to shelter 
his vast army, yet so small that he 
could fold it in his hand, was the 
gift demanded by a certain sultan 
of India of his son, the prince who 
married the fairy Pari-Banou. 

It was not difficult for the fairy 
to produce the tent. When it was 
stretched out, the sultan's army 
conveniently encamped under it 
and, as the army grew, the tent 
extended of its own accord. 

A reality more wonderful than 
Prince Ahmed's magic tent is the 
Bell Telephone. It occupies but a 
few square inches of space on your 



desk or table, and yet extends over 
the entire country. 

When you grasp it in your hand, 
it is as easily possible to talk a 
hundred or a thousand miles away 
as to the nearest town or city. 

In the Bell System, 9,000.000 
telephones are connected and work 
together to take care of the telephone 
needs of the people of this country. 

As these needs grow, and as the 
number of telephone users increases, 
the system must inevitably expand. 
For the Bell System must always 
provide a service adequate to the 
demands of the people. 



American Telephone and Telegraph Company 

And Associated Companies 

One Policy One System Universal Service 

Figure 2 




"And I have grandmother to 
thank, who trained me in the habit 
of brushing my teeth twice-a-day. 

"But, Betty, you have something 
which makes the habit more of a 
pleasure than a duty, the delicious 

COLOftTE'S 

Rlg^gPN DENTOL CREiepl 



..w- i-i„.-i^..tf.^iEj^ 



Reprinted bv courtesy of Colgate & Co. 
Figure 3 




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"The stock 
ain't fed yet, 
Hiram!" 



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P'Hveu jn town A>r c<;iXltu^y■ 



irranf 



of {xiiM-^i 



ixTxiirf. are xu; 




x!5 »*^.i!ch r\ br;iusnt victory iw/n: 



"imlB^ 



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i:;;^^)*, i-Ct^iterw^s.*-- 



; I ;r;r^- .f "/f ' \^.- 



■^,ihUt 



T;;uv;*Xii::;H ot bv=?«tfs afe rtUKfivsu «•;?!; Bijisiirds, Moine;'!;. (ai!i«rs, San;? ;u>ii i^a;!««V5r^. 



crvJK>t;v 



f vvivjf ftod;i^ Ist^;- win' boys Si«! >4ir)^i iitA(! k<?«p ;Jicm o«V 5ti* stm^r 

SUPERB BRUNSWICK 

Home Billiard Tables 

Hih cs;:^x;tiy Jskfr our f3>;:\';>us ri-ifvj^ation Sab5«j— i=>r a)! garsfs o^ Caroui and Pocket Hii- 
; :>! ■ , ,-::-♦ «\s''is and >:ji-iit',j«.s thra barraoaia* -.vitb hoRse s«rj't>«r.(liuii;^v 

M, - svh.. arc v^^isird^ ;it Hsliwiis- Hopj>e. Svt«)n. Is^iSiSn- -perform th«;r bav-t^p^t 
. -0 I ;,t'ic ;,on.-;« s!:y!e<!. , l.rife, sp*p(L ae'-.-ttracv- • ^ti; st ienttfic play-.Kg rjuaUtie^ are attitsr.t'i' 

"GRAND" and "BABY GRAND" Playing Outfit FREE 

T^*■'■<.■>'A^'l>''ft^?=r'B.■^.BV^>f;,\^'f>' hi*- •.>«P'-r5:'iV 

A Year to Pay 

Ot;r pv»pv;Uvr px;xv:ti4*c i>;«n ■'-'>,? >v'w fr* w); ^>.-f < 
-« ?ii- A- *;}' l-ffi>»'f-_^t»i i«» -sSu'T' pay iXNittt!»<'r -is \ >«» 
:,.V,vv. Evec the wesUhJi^jit Rv'O-.v^S .''..%■ wiyi-w 'A'- 1' \»- 



f?4;!< jtiAtvi-rajf-Jw-l Coe*. fefti^V, .Vii.-ij^*, Spirit 
i{ line M»S1U*?." <'cat Jjiciur** *;i ?Jr«B->w\.ic ii-^;K<'' 



t 






-1 



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I'j-t the ft-,^ap'>» while ti-.-j 







Mail For BiUiardBookFREE 



J **BiIliard«— The Home Magnet 

I 



^^^^ 



Figure 4 



Making Arguments Effective 135 

under the restrictions imposed upon him. 
Many of our successful national advertisers 
have come to recognize the fact that the artist 
is demanded for the most skilful exploitation 
of merchandise. The literary style employed 
in the advertising pages of our best magazines 
may be compared favorably with the editorial 
pages. The illustrations which are the most 
successful meet the requirements demanded by 
the combined judgment of the business man, 
the psychologist, and the artist. The most 
convincing arguments are those that most ade- 
quately describe the merchandise; most skil- 
fully appeal to the fundamentals in human 
nature; and are clothed in the most artistic 
forms. 



IV. Weighing the Evidence 

Arguments are not assumed to convince im- 
mediately but to lead to a mental see-sawing, a 
weighing of evidence and a passing of judg- 
ment. In presenting my arguments to you I am 
on my guard to present them in such a form 
that you will actually be able to weigh them and 
to pass judgment as to the value of the thing 
which I am trying to persuade you to accept or 



• (*■ 



II 



(.,, 



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fit, I 

41 I 



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136 Influencing Men in Business 

to do. I therefore present my arguments In a 
logical and simple manner. If I am trying to 
induce you to change to the *'task and bonus'* 
system of wage I must show you what you 
would get according to the new system if trans- 
lated into the terms to which you are accus- 
tomed. In this way you will immediately pass 
the judgment of ''more profitable" upon my 
proposition. I must conform to your habits of 
thought; I must describe things in a manner 
which causes you to classify them favorably, to 
imagine yourself as accepting and acting upon 
my arguments and hence enabled to weigh my 
evidence effectively. 

In so far as possible we all reduce our actions 
to habit and respond in a stereotyped way to 
whole classes of things. There are certain 
classes of things which we habitually reject 
without hesitation; there are other classes 
which we accept in a perfectly automatic man- 
ner. Every business man has formed the fixed 
habit of rejecting every proposition which he 
classifies as unprofitable. He has an equally 
fixed habit of accepting anything which he 
classifies merely as profitable. The function of 
my argument is then to cause the public to 
classify my proposition with a group towards 





P'igure 5 









I 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



U l l iliiii li nf ■I li ym i HHP 



■ l^Bip 



it! 



h 
[.1 



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[^i 






136 Influencing Men in Business 

to do. I therefore present my arguments in a 
logical and simple manner. If I am trying to 
induce you to change to the **task and bonus** 
system of wage I must show you what you 
would get according to the new system if trans- 
lated into the terms to which you are accus- 
tomed. In this way you will immediately pass 
the judgment of *'more profitable" upon my 
proposition. I must conform to your habits of 
thought; I must describe things in a manner 
which causes you to classify them favorably, to 
imagine yourself as accepting and acting upon 
my arguments and hence enabled to weigh my 
evidence effectively. 

In so far as possible we all reduce our actions 
to habit and respond in a stereotyped way to 
whole classes of things. There are certain 
classes of things which we habitually reject 
without hesitation; there are other classes 
which we accept in a perfectly automatic man- 
ner. Every business man has formed the fixed 
habit of rejecting every proposition which he 
classifies as unprofitable. He has an equally 
fixed habit of accepting anything which he 
classifies merely as profitable. The function of 
my argument is then to cause the public to 
classify my proposition with a group towards 






EiV^ 



i-as-i 



y*.^-. 



Suppose we haven't made a million. 

Let's be grateful this Thanksgivin' 

For all those daily blessin's 

That make our lives wuth livin'— 

Thankful that we've got kind fren's- 

No debts we cannot pCiy, 

A lot o' health, enough o' wealth 

An' three good meals a day. 

I'm thankful I can stretch my legs 

Defo' a cheerful fire. 

An' smoke cool, mellow VELVET 

In my sweet, old, seasoned briar. 



<l^f" 



IN THIS season of thankfulness for the fmits of earth, let us 
not forget the "blessed weed" that grows in the Blue Grass 
Country — Kentucky's Barley dc Luxe, thai in the form of 
VELVET, The Smoothest Smoking Tobacco, brings cheer 
and comfort io millions of men. 

Many a Thanksgiving feast will be topped off with a sweet, 
old, seasoned pipe, full of cool, slow-burning VEIVET whose 
aged-in-the-wood mellowness brings content. 

May your Thanksgiving pipe be sweet with if. 

10c Tint 5c Metal-Lined Bags 

One Pound Glass Humidors 

■^^^4i£ttm_M^*MD5€actio Oar. 

Artw 



P"igure 5 



s-m- 



^ \^^'^:.' -^^r ^. - 



"X 



-X 



?"08ACCoi^ 



Z w 



:::=ssms^isim 



Making Arguments Effective 139 

which they have formed the habit of acting 
favorably. Thus if I can get business men to 
classify my offer as profitable they will accept 
It; if they classify it as unprofitable they will 
reject it. 

In reality, arguments are necessary only in 
advocacy of propositions which are so complex 
that they can not readily be classified with a 
single group of things towards which action is 
stereotyped. If I am trying to persuade you to 
purchase a home you may classify the purchase 
of the particular piece of real estate as securing 
a home, a good investment, or an act which 
will please your family, or an act which will 
bring you into association with very desirable 
persons. On the other hand you may classify 
the purchase of this real estate as the sort of 
deal which a friend made and on which he lost 
heavily, as a move which would limit your 
freedom of action, as removing you too far 
from your place of business, as being an outlay 
of money greater than is warranted at the 
present time, or as making it impossible for you 
to be in the market for a bargain. All I can do 
by argument is to present the real estate to you 
in such a manner that you will be likely to 
classify it with the things toward which you act 



* 

- 



n 



:'!; 1 




llr. 



t'B * 





OB f 

ii 



140 Influencing Men in Business 

favorably with the greatest alacrity, and to try 
to keep out of your mind everything which 
would lead you to classify it according to some 
of the unfavorable groups. As a real estate 
dealer I must find out what particular concep- 
tions of real estate are most likely to be 
grouped in classes towards which the possible 
buyers are accustomed to respond most favor- 
ably. If my patrons are conservative and re- 
spond regularly only towards what seems to be 
particularly safe, then I must emphasize the 
substantial nature of my offerings. If they are 
looking for an investment, then I must show 
how the city is growing and how there will be 
ready sales. Great skill is required in present- 
ing any commodity so that it will be most favor- 
ably classified. 

A business phonograph is a new business ap- 
pliance. Whether the business man will pur- 
chase It or not depends upon how he classifies it. 
The reproduced advertisements of business 
phonographs. Figures 6, 7, 8 and 9, are all ex- 
cellent attempts to present such arguments that 
the customers may classify the equipment favor- 
ably. The advertisement reproduced as Figure 
6 presents the business phonograph as a simple 
device which will enable the correspondence 



How many times do you 
use this 





when vou mii^ht use this? 



If you learn to use the 




Dictatin^ 
Machine 



I'-f.-i-i S.)!-'-/);i.iiMt, ?p:;.ifv 'Mk!.' ! V r' 



it will double the output of letters per day, get each day's work 
out on time and cut down telegrapli bills. 

The United States spends over $27,000,000 annually in send- 
ing telegrams. The average cost ol each is 42 cents. How 
much do vou contribute'^ Far more than vou would if vour mail 
w'as promptly handled. 




to 



I lie Edison Dictating Machine has been developed t 
its jjresent advanced design by a corps of experts under / 
the personal supervision of. I homas A. Edison. It is the ma- y^ 
c.hii>e approved and l.ihcled by t{je Underwriters* Labors- • 

tories, Inc., under the (\\r(<ivm ni the National Board of Fitir ^Send in 

Underwrilers, and the onlv dictating machine equipped with / ilu» coupon 
»n Auto Index for conveying correction?, instructions, etc. / 

to th<=> transcriber. Its many rnecfianicaland electrical ^Th>m»»A.Ldmi».\»c 
Hdvaritages are ex{>iained in our lioqklets, which / C>i»««». N. J.**' 

\'oH should read betore investigating. >^..Sr**,'"^'?r ^"'•^ ^-^^^ 

<^ Thr If ft J tii.'tirxi, \fan,' 
Ser-iic etertjtihetc, inchidins ikr puncipat y iim Mtchior ma> (ir tcUptcd iv mr 



r(4lMk- 



^j^ 200 I »kf »id« Aw. , y 

. ~" .:~ ■ : ;■ ::f ;:. .: _ • •. , ^. Aadw«. 



Figure 6 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 




I 



I 



140 Influencing Men in Business 

favorably with the greatest alacrity, and to try 
to keep out of your mind everything which 
would lead you to classify it according to some 
of the unfavorable groups. As a real estate 
dealer I must find out what particular concep- 
tions of real estate are most likely to be 
grouped in classes towards which the possible 
buyers are accustomed to respond most favor- 
ably. If my patrons are conservative and re- 
spond regularly only towards what seems to be 
particularly safe, then I must emphasize the 
substantial nature of my offerings. If they are 
looking for an investment, then I must show 
how the city Is growing and how there will be 
ready sales. Great skill is required in present- 
ing any commodity so that it will be most favor- 
ably classified. 

A business phonograph is a new business ap- 
pliance. Whether the business man will pur- 
chase It or not depends upon how he classifies It. 
The reproduced advertisements of business 
phonographs, Figures 6, 7, 8 and 9, are all ex- 
cellent attempts to present such arguments that 
the customers may classify the equipment favor- 
ably. The advertisement reproduced as Figure 
6 presents the business phonograph as a simple 
device which will enable the correspondence 



<M 



How many times do you 
use this 





when you mii^ht use this? 



If you learn to use the 




Dictatin 
Machine 



it will double the output of letters per day, get each day's work 
out on time and cut down telegrapli bills. 

The United States spends over $ 2 7, OOO.OOO annually in send- 
ing telegrams. The average cost ol each is 42 cents. How 
much do you contribute) Far more than vou would if vour mail 
was promptly handled. 

l.lie Edison Dictating Machine has been developed to 
its present tulvanced design by a corps ol expeits under / 
the personiil suporvit^ion of 'I homas A. Edison. It is the nia- ^ 

; chine approved and labeled by the Underwriters* Labors- / 

tones, hu... under the direcljnn of the National Board of I'ite '^Send in 

L nderwrilers, ar.d tfir unH dictating machine equipped with / UiU coupon 
an Auto Index for ton veving correclions, mstructions, etc. / 

to the transcriber. Its many mechanical ancf electrical ^Ty»fm»»\tA»t».\aK^ 
advantages are explained in otir booklets, which • Oi»n«e?N' f **' 

vou should read })efore investigatins;. ^ ^mtvoAmr yoat t«wUei. 

>cf'af ete'(jahei\', including thr p; <.'JC(><*<' X inu M»cKii>c «>»> I* •d»p»«i «u mr 



M 




y ic»i Mx) rWrOrk*! «<}T«nU«n. 



^- 200 1 «ike»id* Av*. , .-y 

^^^omohCtSdlion^ Otanje, N, J. y_ 



Figure 6 




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1 


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i 


y-^ 




1 


tl 




1 ^H 


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1 


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■% 

t 




Ml. \\'liil(\ ill** senior i-atlnrr is away, m) Im 5l<'Si<.gra|)her ^jx-mls iwr 
time reading arul d-ting lancy work. 

Mr. Black, the iunior [>artner. had only six ktler? to {li< tale, ^o his 
slenograjthef gets thi"VJgh arnJ g<;es ln>ine eari\. 




Mr. Grev. the clue! correspondence cleik. dictated all niornint; to hi-^ j^teno- 
gra})h^^v. She tian-cnhed all aiternoon, and 6 o'clock was iio\\h< r«-- near 
thnaioli. Now \\ the 



Edison ^^ 



ne 



I :-\i,l s:ili>i»(i;li<-i!. fvri.iy "M».V t-' I -ii?, r. 



woukl l)c urjllea 




this otfjce. the typ<.*\v riling work could Le ciiuailv clivi-icd, all the Irtlcrs 
bffore « !<»ing lime, nohody wojtj lie ove»A\ofkfd. ■Ani\ no time would 

he \va<tef.l, for anyone f an ur,tl<"i.<tarul letter* dii tateJ lh»s way a? 

^■ajiiy a* a telephone cot)\er<afi«^n c.tu ht; uivierftood. ^ 

y ihr r,tiiwn Ditialiaij Mat hsne ha« \>et\\ i\r\ eloped lo its present ^ 
advaficet) design by a corps >\ exj>'.nts ur.der the personal /^ . . 
suprrvi'^ionof Thrtnas A. FaJisoi!. It i5 the machine rtppiovetl /_ 
atidlaheledhytheLruleruriter*'Lal)oratories''»~.. under the ^ '* ^""P*"" 
(life< ti;.n of tlic National Board of h ire L fulerwriter*. and ^ \\,M*t\ R<Ji.oa.li««. 
the onh Hk talinK machine equip(>ed w i<h an Aiilo, hidcx • 2iXi i .k'«i» -w 
lor convrvsnp . ...re.:l)on-< .n«tru.:t.on». -k,. to tiv l^.v.KnUi. • ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^, ,^ 

!!» niar.v in*'<hitJii«al ani.1 eUitrual *viv^nia)j« atf "Xi>Ui!i»'<3 ^ l^«.Kjf». " 7 A* <'oo<f. (Ac 

111 <ur f.'.< kit. vvIikK you S.!«>utd n-A'.] bfk r<- iliV'ti^'-^ltn^'. ^ Typeanirt anj ihf^ M'.-'J'/ 



.Sfr: 



t'ccriju'lieie, irtilu-Jins} the 
C<in'i^^ian Cilies. 



•.',i!>.)/ 






. M»vKir,r m«> !•■ »d»»jl«i I" ir.v %«*fk, 
r^ Old y.mr l«».k!»'! on i»« m«< >»»»»! ««<J 
/ rt«>l!i>-«l rMiv«tiU«f*. 

^ N.m. 



Figure 7 



^:' !^«'; 



21 *' 



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KJUOUCXXXUGEIIKKXrCT CCCII.I.I. 



Mi if 



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;^v^/y/? 



■ an 

,■ UP! 

ill! 

; ■;/ ■ 






''''2_iuv'''-''i'^' 



Making the 

"Big Man" 
More Productive 

The Edison Dictating Machine gives the valuable man more time 
for productive work. It means increased efficiency for the "big 
man." It is a time-saving measure applied w here it yields the greatest 
returns. A sound business investment. 

'^^^ 17 J C ^ ^ ^ Dictating 
iLaiSOn MachinI 

and Transophone 

. J he Edison Dictating Machine makes you independent of another's leisure or 
convenience. It is ready for service at any lime^- early or late. Mr. Edison has 
developed it lo the highest perfection in points of service and convenience. 

Tlie Tranisophone, his latest invenlion, is a boon to the stenographer. 

Tiie L<ii»on rcprevntativc in yout tov,n wiil g!a<j!y give you a friic d^iuoDilifttion upon request. 

This Coupon Brings Our Literature 

t}«- J..-ti«<i l)Hl:i<wt ^!8rr,in- tsl«^.-(T.iai Ml «v,i;lbl h '■( i:. lb.- i!i,-(:. .'a|- (.iiria.-,, f.n.cf l\; 
KUivftUtc many ru-vi tod ciciu«vr icat.ifrs v-'i.irH Mi, Edium tiss „Mt.i- :ci.d ilw r.j.iism ■ - 1.-,^» 



s'jjtes 




vnonuwfl.ulkioju 



D«pl. 13f>4. 
Orange, N. J. 




Xocl^fr.^rftt^d 



THOMAS A. EDISON, Inc. 
Dept. 1394, ORANGE, N. J. 

GcDjIi'nien: - Pki5<- »cnU n)e Urc antl wi hoot ohligation your timAlei on 
cort«fK)nd<-nce Hficiency, "The 1 ifr<l Buun>-sji Man." 

M«mr 



A46trfn 



Your Fimi N«rn* 



Figure 8 



tJ 



u 



\i 




Mr. Edison Presents 

The Edison 

Dictating Machine 

an^Transophone 

better and more desirable than ever 



Pressed steel 
construction 

in pedestal, cylinder rack 
and cabinet contribute to 
strength, durability auid 
lightness. 

The accessibility 

of parts bears an impi.>r- 
tant relation to the cost 
of up-keep. 

Sanitube, 

with germicide filler, 
metal tubing, makes 
dictation safe, pleasant 
and efficient. 

Covered Wheels 

avoid annoyance while 
speaking; protect parts. 

Self-Stopper 

saves motor wear and 
current expense. ' 

Chip-Brush, 

cleans the ■ cylinder of 
wax chips. 

Locked-Arm 

prevents losing place on 
cylinder. 




Double Diaphragms 

arc easily replaced, and 
make machines useful for 
both dictating and tran- 
scribing. 

Collapsible Mandrel 

avoids sticking and slip- 
ping of wax cylinder, 
aligns all cylinders to uni- 
form position f orindexing. 

Speaker-Guard 

protects sapphire points 
and prevents scratching 
of cylinder. 

Friction-Grips 

attach on cartons to pre- 
vent cylinder breakage. 

Auto Index 

Easiest, efficient system 
for advising transcriber 
of corrections. 

Edison -made motors 
operate on least current; 
are strongest; run with 

Int lieating in cnmpleUiy rn- 
closeJ cabinet* without 
inrch.inical ventilation; 
bmshr* quitikly rcplaceti. 




Send for the booklet 
*'The Tired Business Man*' 



^^^^^ TRADE MARK 

IMCO««»0»9ATEO 

Dept. 1393, Orange, N. J. Service Everywhere 



Figure 9 



Making Arguments Effective 145 

department to get out all letters on time and 
hence to avoid the necessity of sending tele- 
grams. The advertisement reproduced as 
Figure 7 presents the business phonograph as 
a device for adjusting the work of the indi- 
vidual stenographers. The advertisement re- 
produced as Figure 8 presents the phonograph 
as a device to enable the ''big man" to become 
more productive. The advertisement repro- 
duced as Figure 9 presents the business phono- 
graph, not as a device for rendering any 
particular service, but as a perfect instrument. 

Advertisements reproduced as Figures 6, 7, 
and 8, each emphasize but a single service ren- 
dered by the phonograph. The last of this 
series (Figure 9) emphasizes no service but 
brings out clearly the perfection of the con- 
struction of the instrument. Each of the ad- 
vertisements presents such data that the busi- 
ness man who reads it is almost forced to 
classify the business phonograph with a group 
of things (avoidance of expensive telegrams; 
equation of work of stenographers; accomplish- 
ment of maximum by high-priced men; perfec- 
tion in details of office equipment) toward 
which he has formed the habit of acting 
favorably. 






».,■ 



'•11 

'i\ 



;r I 



II 



) A 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



» p i w iii— mi— i—H 



i ^ 



Mr. Edison Presents 

The Edison 

Dictating Machine 

anof Transophone 

better and more desirable than ever 



Pressed steel 
construction 

in pedestal, cylinder rack 
and cabinet contrihuteto 
strength, durability and 
lightness. 

The accessibility 

of parts bears an innpor- 
lant relation to the cost 
of up-keep. 

Sanitube, 

with germicide filler, 
metal tubing, makes 
dictation safe, pleasant 
and efficient. 

Covered Wheels 

avoid annoyance while 
speaking; protect parts. 

Self -Stopper 

saves motor wear and 
current expense. 

Chip-Brush, 

cleans the cylinder of 
wax chips. 

Locked-Arm 

prevents losing place on 
cylinder. 




Double Diaphragms 

arc easily replaced, and 
make machines useful for 
both dictating aod tran- 
scribing. 

Collapsible Mandrel 

avoids .sticking and slip- 
ping of wax cylinder, 
aligns all cylinders to uni- 
form position f orindexin g. 

Speaker-Guard 

protects sapphire points 
and prevents scratching 
of cylinder. 

Friction-Gripa 

attach on cartons to pre- 
vent cylinder breakage. 

Auto Index 

Easiest, efficient system 
for advising transcriber 
of corrections. 

EdisoD-made motors 

operate on least current; 
are strongest; run with 

lea heating in compUleftf eu- 
cloteJ cabinet* without 
mn'h.'inical ventilation; 
brushp» quickly rrplaced. 

Send for the booklet 
'^The Tired Business Man" 




lARK 



^^^"^^ TRAOC Mi 

IfMCORP'ORATEO 

Dcpt. 1 393, Orange, N. J. Service Everywhere 



Figure 9 



Making Arguments Effective 145 

department to get out all letters on time and 
hence to avoid the necessity of sending tele- 
grams. The advertisement reproduced as 
Figure 7 presents the business phonograph as 
a device for adjusting the work of the indi- 
vidual stenographers. The advertisement re- 
produced as Figure 8 presents the phonograph 
as a device to enable the "big man" to become 
more productive. The advertisement repro- 
duced as Figure 9 presents the business phono- 
graph, not as a device for rendering any 
particular service, but as a perfect instrument. 

Advertisements reproduced as Figures 6, 7, 
and 8, each emphasize but a single service ren- 
dered by the phonograph. The last of this 
series (Figure 9) emphasizes no service but 
brings out clearly the perfection of the con- 
struction of the instrument. Each of the ad- 
vertisements presents such data that the busi- 
ness man who reads it is almost forced to 
classify the business phonograph with a group 
of things (avoidance of expensive telegrams; 
equation of work of stenographers; accomplish- 
ment of maximum by high-priced men; perfec- 
tion in details of office equipment) toward 
which he has formed the habit of acting 
favorably. 



f 



1 



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f t 
. » 



H 



I 



.H 



■It ■ 

I' 



I 



146 Influencing Men in Business 

In presenting my arguments I must do it so 
that you may compare and weigh them with 
those presented for any competing line of 
goods. My duty is not to assist you to call up 
these competing and contrasted ideas but to 
hold your attention so far as possible to my 
offers. I should emphasize particularly those 
points in my commodity at which comparisons 
with other things are made most readily and 
favorably. 

Whether my line of goods will be chosen 
when brought into competition with other 
goods, depends largely upon how it is classified 
in the minds of the public. If I am selling a 
steel filing case it will be selected if it is classified 
by the public as a convenience used by successful 
competing firms ; but will be rejected if classified 
as a product of a new and successful method of 
electric welding. It will be chosen if classified 
as an economy in space and money; but re- 
jected if classified as a piece of office furniture. 
If I am selling a revolver it will be selected if 
classified as a protection, but rejected if classi- 
fied as a powerful weapon. By means of sales- 
men and advertising, a merchant may in a large 
degree determine how the public shall classify 
his commodity. Almost any article of mer- 



Making Arguments Effective 147 

chandlse may be, and actually is, classified in a 
score of different ways. Ordinarily the mer- 
chant follows precedent or habit in deciding 
how his goods shall be classified in advertising 
and in selling talks. Whether he hits upon a 
good or a bad classification is largely a matter 
of luck, for no business man today knows how 
his goods should be classified to secure the 
greatest possible results. By bitter experience 
he may have found that one particular classifi- 
cation succeeds and that another fails, but he 
does not know the relative merits of different 
classifications. At this point the psychologist 
should render inestimable service to the busi- 
ness world. In any particular case he should 
be able to determine the relative merits of dif- 
ferent classifications. He should be able in 
advance to determine the success of any par- 
ticular appeal in comparison with any other 
method of presenting the same goods. He 
should thus be in a position to save the business 
world from some of its unsuccessful advertis- 
ing campaigns and hence to reduce the cost of 
distribution. 

V. Concluding the Argument 

The argument is not completed till It ends in 








I !' 



I 



i 



S i 



1 ' 



■ 



, 



148 Influencing Men in Business 

conviction and execution. The classification 
leading to comparison would seem to necessi- 
tate the conviction and execution, but unfortu- 
nately the concluding step can not be thus 
assumed. For example, I may have led my 
employees to classify piece rate as a wage; and 
by comparison with other wages they may think 
of it as a larger wage. But before the argu- 
ment has completed its function it must lead 
each man to go through a process of thinking 
something like the following syllogistic form 
of reasoning: 

(Major premise) I will seek any oppor- 
tunity to secure a larger wage. 

(Minor premise) The piece rate offers an 
opportunity to secure a larger wage. 

(Conclusion) Therefore I accept the piece- 
rate system. 

Perhaps my presentation of the case in estab- 
lishing both the major premise and the minor 
premise may have fulfilled the steps previously 
specified under sections i, 2, 3, and 4 of this 
chapter. The employees may thus have a clear 
idea of wage and of piece rate. The piece rate 
with its possibility of a larger wage may have 
been made to seem valuable. The piece rate 



Making Arguments Effective 149 

may have been classified as a wage, and by 
comparison may seem to be a larger wage. The 
final step demands that these ideas should be 
brought into the form of an actual syllogism, 
or into some other effective form, so that the 
employees shall be forced to the conviction that 
the piece rate is desirable for them and hence 
they would be inclined to take the necessary 
steps to accept it. 

In using argumentation to secure a high 
grade of employees, my task is not complete till 
I have made each candidate go through a men- 
tal process somewhat like the following: 

(Major premise) A man should choose that 
employment which offers the greatest ultimate 
reward. 

(Minor premise) Your employment offers 
the greatest ultimate reward. 

(Conclusion) Therefore I accept employ- 
ment with you. 

Most of my argument may have been de- 
voted to establishing the ideas summarized in 
the major and minor premises, but the success 
of the argument is measured by the degree to 
which I have secured conviction and execution 
as expressed in the conclusion of the syllogism. 



I 



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* ' * 

' ' I 

i ' I 
, ( 1 

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1 1 






150 Influencing Men in Business 

In selling automobile tires by argumentation, 
my aim may be to cause the possible purchaser 
to go through a series of mental processes that 
may be summarized in a syllogism as follows : 

(Major premise) I shall purchase the tire 
that gives me the lowest cost per mile. 

(Minor premise) Your tire gives the lowest 

cost per mile. 

(Conclusion) Therefore I shall order your 

make of tire. 

My selling talk (copy, demonstration) may 
be devoted mainly to establishing the major or 
the minor premise. In establishing these 
premises my dependence may be on the mental 
processes discussed under the headings: **Cre- 
ating an Adequate Idea of What is Offered"; 
*The How Supplements the Why in an Argu- 
ment"; "The Place of Feeling and Sentiment in 
an Argument"; and "Weighing the Evidence." 
But the result of the entire argument Is to se- 
cure the mental states expressed by the customer 
In the "therefore" of the conclusion. 

In all these illustrations, and In all examples 
of attempts to Influence men by means of argu- 
mentation, it is not Important whether the 
argument be cast In the form of a perfect syl- 



Making Arguments Effective 151 

logism an implied syllogism, or in some form 
quite different from the syllogism. But it is 
important that the reader or hearer should be 
led to reach the mental state symbolized by the 
therefore" m the conclusion of a perfect 
syllogism. r ^L 



03 



!^ 



■<■■ ' 



[I 



« 









It: 



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ri 



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.:< 



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/^ 



CHAPTER VIII 
MAKING SUGGESTIONS EFFECTIVE 



OUTLINE 

Mankind is Influenced More by Suggestions than 
by Syllogistic Arguments 

I. The Working of Suggestion is Dependent upon the 
Dynamic, Impulsive Nature of Ideas 
II. Suggestions are Given by External Objects and 

TTT c '" ^''^^ ^''"''^'' *° Imitative Acts 

III. Suggestion Excludes Comparison and Criticism 

IV. Su^g«t,on Secures Direct Response Without 



ijl;! 



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lift 



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i 



CHAPTER VIII 
MAKING SUGGESTIONS EFFECTIVE 

Mankind is Influenced More by Sugges- 

TION THAN BY SYLLOGISTIC ARGUMENTS 

We have numerous books on the study of 
arguments but there is not a book and scarcely 
a chapter of a book (so far as the writer 
knows) which deals with the methods and 
devices of utilizing suggestions in business. It 
is interesting to the man in business to know l 
that suggestion is, in his hands, a more power- \ 
ful means of influencing men than is argument, 
but what he wants to know is precisely how he 
may give suggestions. The methods of giving 
suggestions and the sorts of suggestions which 
will be effective are discovered from a study of 
the principles found in an analysis of suggestion 
itself. 



I. The Working of Suggestion is Depend- 
ENT Upon the Dynamic, Impulsive 
Nature of Ideas 

From this principle we learn that in giving 
suggestions the thing of importance is to give 

155 







i'i. 






t- 1 



. .f trl 



!m! 



!■' r 



156 Influencing Men in Business 

the idea and then to trust to It to accomplish 
results. If I wish you to purchase a particular 
make of automobile I must get the idea of that 
automobile into your mind. If I want you to 
engage a certain class of employees I must get 
into your mind the idea of these persons con- 
sidered as possible employees. It is not neces- 
sary to convince you of the wisdom of the ideas 
but merely to get the ideas into your head, and 
then to trust to their dynamic natures to carry 
themselves out. If I want the American people 
to go to an exposition I must keep the idea of 
that exposition before them. It is not so im- 
portant what I say about the exposition as that 
I put the matter before them so they will have 
the idea of the exposition vividly in mind. 

This dependence on the dynamic force of 
ideas has made successful much advertising and 
other selling campaigns where there is no evi- 
dent attempt to convince the public. The ad- 
vertisement of White Rock reproduced as 
Figure 10, is a quarter-page advertisement that 
may possibly be very successful. There is no 
adequate ground given to convince us that 
White Rock is "The world's best table water." 
Yet the idea is conveyed to us by these words 
and many of us are profoundly impressed by it. 



Making Suggestions Effective 157 

This may be a very good advertisement, but if 
It were not for the dynamic force of the idea 

"Tki WbrU*9 Best Table Water**^ 

Figure 10 



conveyed the advertisement would be prac- 
tically worthless. 

When we speak of the dynamic, Impulsive 
nature of Ideas, we are using the word idea In 
the broadest possible sense and Inclusive of all 
such mental processes as sensations, percep- 
tions. Images, and memory. Some of these 
mental processes are much more dynamic than 
others. That Is to say, some of them lead to 
action more surely than others. 

Perceptions axe_rnore dynamic than memory 
or any form of mental image. The visual per- 
ception of a peach (actually seeing It) will 
cause me to spend my money more readily than 
any memory or mental Image of the peach. 
The mere memory of a peach may cause my 
mouth to water but the sight of the ripe fruit 




// / 




■ll.rl 



ii 



M 



\\ 311 






.♦ 



! 



158 Influencing Men in Business 

affects me to an even greater degree. In the 
history of the race, individuals have been accus- 
tomed to act mainly upon perception and less 
often upon memory or imagination. 

Although we react readily to things that 
reach us directly through our senses, we react 
less readily to tJiose things which reach us indi- 
rectly by means of such symbols as printed and 
spoken words. Pictures, especially if colored, 
are like the actual visual perceptions of the ob- 
ject. Hence pictures are more dynamic than 
verbal descriptions. A diagram or a chart also 
partakes of the nature of direct perception and 
frequently secures action in a most astonishing 
way. Thus in Figures 11, 12, 13, and 14, the 
reproduced advertisements convince and move 
the public in a way impossible for mere verbal 
descriptions. --^ 

A spoken or printed wordyis a less effective 
method of presenting a thing or a cause than is 
a picture or any real object which has become 
associated with the thing or the cause. The 
sight of the ruins in the Forum at Rome in- 
spires one with awe for ancient civilization in a 
way impossible for words to accomplish. The 
effect of monuments and memorials is most pro- 
found, and is due to the fact that visual perccp- 



JW^ 



\ 



Making Suggestions Effective 159 

tions are more dynamic than symbolic ideas. 
The effect of souvenirs and novelty advertising 
is due to the same cause. The sight and the 
touch of a real object associated with a par- 
ticular line of merchandise, influences us toward 
that merchandise in a striking way. 

Positive ideas are more dynamic than nega- 
tive ones, even when logically they seem identi- 
cal. *The chances are only one to four that 
you will lose,'* is logically identical with the 
statement, "The chances are four to one that 
you will win." The latter would secure re- 
sponse more readily than the former. The 
statement, "It will keep perfectly for thirty 
days,'' is more dynamic than the statement, "It 
will not begin to decay for thirty days." The 
human mind responds more readily to the posi- 
tive idea than to the negative, even in instances 
where differences^ in response might not be an- 
ticipated. "Walk down the middle of the 
plank," is carried out more readily than "Don't 
step near the edges of the plank." "Look 
straight ahead," is a command less difficult than 
"Don't look to the right or the left." "Secure 
the genuine," is more effective than "Avoid 
substitution." 

We are also accustomed to respond to single 



I 




ii 



1 60 Influencing Men in Business 

things rather than to groups of things ; to con- 
crete situations rather than to abstractions; to 
objects within the focus of attention rather than 
to those on the fringe of consciousness. 




.m 



II. Suggestions are Given by External 
Objects and Result in Acts Similar 
TO Imitative Acts 

The effectiveness of a suggestion depends 
much upon the source from which it comes. 
The most powerful source is a person who 
assumes, and is believed to possess, a friendly 
and sympathetic attitude. Abraham Lincoln 
was one of the most successful of American 
diplomats. He knew how to deal with men 
and fortunately he has given advice on this 
particular point: 

"When the conduct of men is designed to be 
influenced, persuasion, kind, unassuming per- 
suasion, should ever be adopted. It is an old 
and true maxim that *a drop of honey catches 
more flies than a gallon of gall.' So with men. 
If you would win a man to your cause, first con- 
vince him that you are his sincere friend. 
Therein is a drop of honey that catches his 
heart, which, say what he will, when once 



m 



Making Suggestions Effective 161 

gained, you will find but little trouble in con- 
vincing his judgment of the justice of your 
cause, if indeed that cause really be a just one. 
On the contrary, assume to dictate to his judg- 
ment, or to command his action, or to mark 
him as one to be shunned and despised, and he 
will retreat within himself, close all the avenues 
to his head and his heart; and though your 
cause be naked truth itself, and though you 
throw it with more than Herculean force and 
precision, you will be no more able to pierce 
him than to penetrate the hard shell of a tor- 
toise with a rye straw. Such is man, and so 
must he be understood by those who would lead 
him, even to his own best Interests.'* 

The sympathetic foreman and salesman in 
their dealings with men, accomplish results that 
are Impossible for their less sympathetic com- 
petitors. Certain organizations have come to 
realize that In training salesmen the most im- 
portant result IS to beget a feeling of real inter- 
est in and sympathy for the customers with 
whom they are to deal. They must be taught to 
assume the attitude of sympathetic helpfulness. 

Prestige transforms all acts and words Into 
veritable suggestions. The words of a great 
authority are accepted as facts, and that too 



I 





I 



K -St 
1 t 




162 Influencing Men in Business 

without criticism. His acts are imitated not 
only in the field of his specialty but also in the 
non-essential details of his daily life. The man 
of prestige thus determines the thoughts and 
acts of his fellows. He is their veritable Bible 
and rule book. This working of prestige is 
observable in all human organizations. The 
nobility of a land sets the fashions for the com- 
mon people. The city dweller determines the 
philosophy, the religion, and the ethics for the 
country dweller. The wealthy are imitated by 
the poor. The successful are imitated by the 
unsuccessful. The athlete is imitated by the fan, 
not only in the method of playing the game but 
also in the selection of clothes, tobacco, razors, 
etc., etc. 

The women of Paris at one time were sup- 
posed to surpass all other women of the world 
in womanly graces and accomplishments. Paris 
was the center for refined literature, for paint- 
ing, and for all the other humanities that might 
be thought of as womanly in any particular. 
Because of this fact the women of Paris ac- 
quired great prestige in the eyes of all the 
world. Consequently the women of all lands 
wanted to act like the Parisian woman. They 
desired to imitate her in clothing, and hence 



i 







Making Suggestions Effective 163 

costumes purporting to come from Paris could 
be readily sold and at a handsome price. 

The men of London at one time were sup- 
posed to possess the most manly virtues. Their 
virility was demonstrated by the fact that in 
direct competition they had become possessors 
of the colonial, the naval, and the financial 
powers of the world. They lived like gentle- 
men and ruled like kings. They accordingly 
became possessed of a prestige that extended to 
all the nations of the earth. Because of this 
prestige the Englishmen set the fashions for 
the men of the world, and have been able to sell 
English clothing at great profit. 

The indirect method of giving suggestions is 
not at all confined to verbal expressions, but 
may include such devices as that presented in 
Figure 11. If the advertiser of Scot tissue had 
said directly that his merchandise had most 
marvelous absorbent power, I would have ques- 
tioned his statement. But when he makes the 
statement indirectly by means of an apparent 
photograph, I am convinced withqut any ques- 
tion. If the advertiser of a revolver should tell 
me that with his weapon it is as easy to shoot 
a man as it is to point a finger at him, I should 
naturally question the accuracy of his statement. 



4 



t I 



N,; 









I 




164 Influencing Men in Business 

When, however, I look at the picture of the 
Savage pistol (Figure 12), I feel that it would 
be as easy to shoot as to point the finger. If 
the Phillips- Jones Company should assert that 
they had accomplished a marvelous feat in 
uniting shirts and drawers, the public would be 
incredulous. Yet by means of the picture of the 
magician performing that act, the public has 
been convinced (Figure 13). If the owners of 
automobiles were told that the **lowest cost per 
mile'* was the only standard for judging tires, 
they might be impressed, but the statement 
would first be questioned. These same owners 
are convinced without any questioning when 
they see the picture of a tire being weighed on a 
scale on which **lowcst cost per mile** is the 
highest weight (Figure 14). 

The words of a great authority are sugges- 
tions for those to whom he is an authority. His 
words are accepted as facts; they are not sub- 
jected to criticism but are accepted unhesi- 
tatingly. This power of suggestion in the words 
of men with authority, with power, and with 
technical ability is made much use of in dealing 
with men. The expert workman becomes the 
boss of a gang and his words are carried out 
without question. The man whose personality 



SeofBsj 



^ "' 



owels 






Absorbency- 

The Quality and Price Test of a Paper Towel 

No purchasing agent of a railroad, corporation, factory, 
department store or hotel can afford to overlook the 
absorbent test in buying paper towels. This absorbent 
test decides whether you are saving or wasting money 
—maybe hundreds of dollars— on a year's supply 

Since the primary purpose of a paper towel is to absorb 
water, the quickness with which your paper towels can 
absorb and the quantity they can absorb in a given time 
will determine their quality. This photographic illustra- 
tion shows an absorbent ScotTissue Towel rolled up in 
pencil fashion and placed in a glass of water— make the 
test for yourself and see whether or not 

^cofHssuelowels 



Hm 



Use Like • Blotter** 

Are Cheapest by This Test 

Buy your paper towels on this absorption test and you 
will be satisfied. Find out.whether you are paying 
paper towel prices for paper only or whether you are 
buying absorbent paper. There is a mighty big differ- 
ence. ScotTissue-s go further and cost you less because 
they absorb quicker and absorb more water 

To Large Consumers 

Our Service Department is prepared to study conditions in your 
establishment and devise means for effecting substantial econ- 
omies in your paper towel and toilet paper supplies You will be 
surprised to find in how many different ways they can do this and 
the amount they can save you This entirely apart from the great 
saving which the installation of ScotTissue Towels and other 
ScotTissue products will show you. 

^u^ ^''' ^^"<*- .»" charges prepaid. 750 ScotTissue 
absorbent Toweh 'orBOOwest of Mississippi River and 
in Canada) fort2 00 An economical fixture $1 extra 

SCOTT PAPER COMPANY PhiUdelphia. P.. 

Maken o/ ScolTiuue ToifieU and Toikt Paper 



Figure 11 



I 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



! ! 

t t 

'} \ 

-■ li 



k 




f 1 





164 Influencing Men in Business 

When, however, I look at the picture of the 
Savage pistol (Figure 12), I feel that it would 
be as easy to shoot as to point the finger. If 
the Phillips-Jones Company should assert that 
they had accomplished a marvelous feat in 
uniting shirts and drawers, the public would be 
incredulous. Yet by means of the picture of the 
magician performing that act, the public has 
been convinced (Figure 13). If the owners of 
automobiles were told that the ^lowest cost per 
mile" was the only standard for judging tires, 
they might be impressed, but the statement 
would first be questioned. These same ow^ners 
are convinced without any questioning when 
they see the picture of a tire being weighed on a 
scale on which **lowest cost per mile'' is the 
highest weight (Figure 14). 

The words of a great authority are sugges- 
tions for those to whom he is an authority. His 
words are accepted as facts; they are not sub- 
jected to criticism but are accepted unhesi- 
tatingly. This power of suggestion in the words 
of men with authority, with power, and with 
technical ability is made much use of in dealing 
with men. The expert workman becomes the 
boss of a gang and his words are carried out 
without question. The man whose personality 



ow«ls 



Absorbency 

The Quality and Price Test of a Paper Towel 

No purchasing agent of a railroad, corporation, factory, 
department store or hotel can afford to overlook the 
absorbent test in buying paper towels. This absorbent 
test decides whether you are saving or wasting money 
—maybe hundreds of dollars— on a year's supply 

Since the primary purpose of a paper towel is to absorb 
water, the quickness with which your paper towels can 
absorb and the quantity they can absorb in a given time 
will determine their quality. This photographic illustra- 
tion shows an absorbent ScotTissue Towel rolled up in 
pencil fashion and placed in a glass of water— make the 
test for yourself and see whether or not 

ScoflTssttelowels 



61 ASS 



If 



Use Like a Blotter" 



Are Cheapest by This Test 

Buy your paper towels on this absorption test and you 
will be satisfied. Find out.whether you are paying 
paper towel prices for paper only or whether you are 
buying absorbent paper. There is a mighty big differ- 
ence. ScotTissue-s go further and cost you less because 
they absorb quicker and absorb more water 

To Large Consumers 

Our Service Department is prepared to study conditions in your 
establishment and devise means for effecting substantial econ- 
omies in your paper towel and toilet paper supplies You will be 
surprised to Hnd in how many different ways they can do this and 
the amount they can save you This entirely apart from the ereal 
saving which the installation of ScotTissue Towels and other 
ScotTissue products will show you. 

We w'lll send, all charges prepaid. 750 ScotTissue 
a&sorftfn/ Towels 'or600 west of Mississippi River and 
in Canada) for 12 00. An economical fixture tl extra 

SCOTT PAPER COMPANY PhiUdelphi*. P.. 

Maker* of ScolTiuut Tojpeli and Toilel Paper 



Figure 11 



.'. }| 



r 

■' I 



;, : I 



t i 



fit 



\ 



» 



I I 



9, 



SAVAGE 

The ONLT Automatic 




that Skoots 

lO shots 

QuickLhs. 

6 or 8 in all otker makes 

and Aims easy as 
pointing your linger. 



Figure 12 




U The only thing in the world that will get 
there without apparently moving is a shirt- 
tail. - You know where — up ! ! 

H Obviate discomfort— What good is a 
shirttail anyway? 

If That means GLUS — the shirt with 
drawers attached — same price as the ordi- 
nary shirt because the tail material is used 
for drawers — sensible economy. 

$1.50,— $2,— $2.50,— $3, up to $12. 

OLUS ONE PIECE PAJAMA. Delight- 
ful for lounging or sleeping. No strings to 
tighten or come loose. $1.50, — $2, — $2.50, 
— $3,— $3.50 and $4. 



If your dealer cannot supply you, write 
us. Olus booklet on request. 

PHILLIPS-JONES COMPANY, he. 

1199 Broadway, Dept. S, New York 




^ 

!5 



Figure 13 



\ ''• 



^^V.■JW.Vl»^^>>x,,.x^^^5.^^VlM*»;«>W>^M■^^K;:■M(^.y;-;S*;":*:M^M*:*!A: 





— » No Rim-Cut* 




mm ii iiii i iiiiiiiiwwi* 



; "On Air" Cure 
To S»*«« BJowOut* 

I Rubber Rivrti 

To Cotnbat Loo»e Ti«n««1» 

AllWe*th«r 
Double-Thick Trifad* 

-^ PopoUrily 

l^<w«»t Co»t 
■ \ P<-t Mil* 



( 






Weigh Tires 
By This Scale 

The»e are th* trouUe* you wish to cure. 
The«e are the service* you seek. But a tire 
can't render what it lacks. What thc^maker 
fails to give it can't be given you. 

Let us avoid generalities and get down to 
specific facts. These are the ways in which 
Coodyears excel. These are the reasons why 
they hold tc^ place. These are the advantages 
they offer you over any rival lire. 

No-Rim-Cut Tires 

Are the Only Tires Which Weigh 
Up to These Requirements 



Rim-Cut tirtg ■■. »>;;<(<• i«>:vs*:W«- «> flifm. 
Am! :lw i<-;"--<- »vl«.-i5 iu'Ak^^ >; >rr';-<>'<<-«i»lt: :s « 

•.', ':;;>!i(vi i.->l>f"' <-i<* rtiw!«ait~!i w<<-^r"(.>!^-:\fr 
•••.:r:- Th-s !•>:-:< (r.v.fs* Jiix i);:sl-<-.:r;H»; f>^. 

< rlif-r m»if<rr cm-.-ws :i. 

Loom! tf »•««!» *f<- <<"-:<i;!n; '^\ i: \n--tti 
m.t:;<<l ■■y'r::A\ r<- ■■.:■.,- <-^ fi>(> •k.-mi-: \,\ <>(> (.-r 

>•:<■!;:.<) iki--::';iJ ;!«■ v::i<"a'''4»M<«r:. I !•■'■< >s <<;'"•' 

AllW«*thcf trend* «■<• vy?*; w. <.>t>.i':yf!a* 

n<- flat :»«f s:;i<K(i\ v» »t>»ry c»n ':««' S: (>!«!« 
■f<'a'\. \{k\ sf .•»>)> *»<■; "i:«*» »N>;1> <J<-!>1\ *harp. 

Popularity 

p;<':v:-» ■•• ii(t«-r "silt-ns <A 
^■(•y^s ful* T:<>xi-«<. i t**'* 



OODt^YEAR 

No-Rtm-Cut Tire* 

With A«.W«i«h«rTr«ja» or Smooth 



Th«! sh^'ws ih<r v.-r<!>ri <i ::s«s--l«»««ir?<J<iof 
(luw*!tr<is ■>< '.Uf-v.. ' Ar.H rKis y<-<»r i>f<-r» itrf 
fi.»<>g:r;({ K< <.>xi<lv<->irs iV«;i»r ;)><;:; <:\«t Ixrfr-r*". 

I llfti! I. •!>((■ :•• 1<^S ;:'-:-ubW to I w<-r >::>s^ («M- 

mJo - (•■ f.ist ;!)?■ »~"<v' jjs jl>ui >t>i; s. ••!(. 
16 Extra Prices 

xvKivj; (■••^. »K<T iJ'.an <.«»:->Ktar |>fi>.'«'S oi:«»<- 
arc <;<«--tinf J ?;«(;!•.«■«■. Tt»> >.i«-..- !>> namf b«;<>fc 
KaH-)|)v:; Ik; (JtT <.'KX*JyM«'. A::<; WOIO ■■Kar^Jp f:>: 
tjifvc <;(<■■> "hi:; {>-f>f:y«->-r tsks i"'-r (<>vr. 

/.):>:■.'( j;:<:g<r lio-s tn (-rtr:<><. Iht>><- ;<ri arhi- 
lr(»r\ f.>:~!». W <-tjf}> ;l«r»» Ky 

iht'm bv.ll:«ir vnwlh. 



tfCM^ 



\V hon vox <\n m>« >o«"i; 
"Oft? (i;«fK«'.»rs. An<l ;«>> 
lipal^f wii! supply ih*n» 



Swi&'-fe'i'i'^i'i'ifiMif'^' 



^::fe«:ft..;>;i>...:ft:SiA;^ 



July 18, 1914 

Figure 14 



i 



THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY, AKRON, OHIO 



'ussssrmmwmmm*. 



Making Suggestions Effective 169 

carries the most weight is assigned the most 
important duties. 

Our subjection to authority is so great that 
it can be taken advantage of in most absurd 
ways. In persuading men we try to make our 
words appear as though they proceeded from 
an authority even when a moment's reflection 
would show the unreality of the claim. Thus 
in the case of the reproduced advertisement of 
Van Camp's pork and beans in Figure 15, I am 
impressed by the statements, **Culinary art cohi- 
bined with science has revolutionized Baked 
Beans. The dish of today, as baked by Van 
Camp, is a new creation.'' The picture leads 
me to suppose that the statements of the adver- 
tising writer are the words of what appears to 
be an expert chef. The statement is to me a 
suggestion in so far as I accept it without criti- 
cism or proof. This device of showing what 
appears to be the photograph of an expert in 
connection with statements is a common one in 
advertising and one that is most effective since 
it increases our suggestibility very greatly. In 
this way the prosperous-looking business man 
is represented as approving of some proposi- 
tion appertaining to business. The physician 
seems to be affirming the statement that refers 



i 




iiig 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 




m, 





i 



IHiHIIiiiMIII^^ 



"On-Air" Cure 
To S*v«> BiowOutf 

Rubb«r Rivrt» 

To Cotnbftt Loot* Tresil* 

AII-W«»tHer 
D<>ubl«vThicii TiT»d» 



Mf ^5 PopuUrily 






Weigh Tires 
By This Scale 

Thfte are the trouUet you with to cure. 
Th<t« are t)ie aervice* you aeek. But .a tire 
can't render what it lacks. What th^maker 
fail* to give it can't be given you. 

Let us avoid generalities and get down to 
specific facts. These are the ways in which 
Goodyears excel. These are the reasons why 
they hold t<^ place. These are the advantages 
they offer you over any rival lire. 

No-Rim-Cut Tires 

Are the Only Tires Which Weigh 
Up to These Requirements 




Riin~Cutting -t mmU- Ini'.y^ySU' in ihfm, 

A»»<l :i»* iV;"---€' *.liic-;* Hlfii^ry K >r«J^<>>*»l»k" ::* » 

Biow-wuli slw <■•.»««(«>»♦ Iik:vi.-i.x;<i« <}>«■ *'> 
<■::■■:. I h:v <■■.:.-;< (xv.t'N* •.(lis f»".»}-<'-.:r;»»; r>r: 

Loom: tfo«W» »ft- <■<<'• '.ksn; S> » pt-roi 

<:: MO :*h«'r tiro. 

AUWe*lh«t tre«<ia »f<- ■■ .;<; .■: ' v> .<;\i»r« 
■«!>. '\\-r*x- !:r<- :-«Kh ■»««) <)• -uttlr d>«.fe. Ti%f.y 
arc fe*l ami >;:;;<>•■( m. «•> ti>r\ ;»(> ';so f. |>lsm 
ir«r(»*i. I Ix . s';>M> "'■ 



Th* sh-i-ws i!«f »<T«)ir« of "(MIS- •■■l»i«Ktr<'«!<K:l 
(m«i*»r;rfs ■ < '(trrrr, ' Arifi rKis \<ar ••♦•or* srf 

iTiiio - (•■ t"*i •''>»• '~'»v--- gs tim; >(>« s- etc. 



' ;"!■■<■ 



■'•V »\i;Jj <;*"■;■. Hr;j*r:> 



Popularity 

tw'f^,>(<: i>,-x»» •■■ G»t>«;v«-sr 
u(fs fufe {'ifeti^Bi. H""? 



OODtSYEAR 

ei*^ AMIOM, OHIO 

No-Rim-Cut Tire* 

Wiillt Ait.WtMilK«r Tf<MuU or SnyMith 



16 Extra Prices 

Y«5i. «Jr»(.<:«o thc-c f'-aUiffx. i\.vtf »»■,• <(> molten 

hdti-)>K':; l»aj<«T<.KN»ije.v. A::<; v-mr .jiarije fix 
twt-<- i.i<« «(«!• {rfj^if?)**)' Bsk* i"r t<>v.-. 

PhiS ;.<» <{««» ^■:• (k:< lai'fj r«f(j«ir:.<-n». V?>:!;|;li<<i 
tr»r> (.»::». W r»j{U !l»«-»n Ky 



W hon ont <{f> «J« you'll 
>♦(«:! (I<;<Klv<-Krs. Aim{ ;if(\ 



THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY, AKRON, OHIO 



ToftMilo, Canada 

l>«Mte«M C«M> «ti«*« S«w*rW« K*4 



t«3 ffiKiM <-'<<iM 



M«taie» City, Mexico 



July 18, 1914 

Figure 14 



Making Suggestions Effective 169 

carries the most weight is assigned the most 
important duties. 

Our subjection to authority is so great that 
it can be taken advantage of in most absurd 
ways. In persuading men we try to make our 
words appear as though they proceeded from 
an authority even when a moment's reflection 
would show the unreality of the claim. Thus 
in the case of the reproduced advertisement of 
Van Camp's pork and beans in Figure 15, I am 
impressed by the statements, **CulInary art com- 
bined with science has revolutionized Baked 
Beans. The dish of today, as baked by Van 
Camp, is a new creation." The picture leads 
me to suppose that the statements of the adver- 
tising writer are the words of what appears to 
be an expert chef. The statement is to me a 
suggestion in so far as I accept it without criti- 
cism or proof. This device of showing what 
appears to be the photograph of an expert in 
connection with statements is a common one in 
advertising and one that is most effective since 
it increases our suggestibility very greatly. In 
this way the prosperous-looking business man 
is represented as approving of some proposi- 
tion appertaining to business. The physician 
seems to be affirming the statement that refers 




I 



,♦1:. 



■« 



170 Influencing Men in Business 

to the medicinal qualities of goods. The ex- 
pert accountant is depicted as recommending 
the adding machine. The typewriting girl is 
represented as describing to us the virtues of a 
new machine. The beautifully dressed lady 
speaks from the finely executed half-tone to 
assure us of the peculiar loveliness of the ad- 
vertised costumes. 

Imitation is one of the most common forms 
of suggestion. We imitate the acts of others 
without considering the advisability of so doing. 
This fact is most significant in understanding 
methods of influencing men. We Imitate others 
more readily than we follow their words. 
"Come on!" Is more effective than "Go on!'* 
If I see others looking Into a shop window I 
too am Inclined to stop and look. If others 
are Interested in one class of sport, that is the 
particular form that entices me. All fashions 
and customs are but testimonials of the power 
of Imitation as a form of suggestion. 

In persuading men it is frequently possible 
to avail oneself of the suggestive force of imi- 
tation even when direct imitation Is impossible. 
Thus pictures of others performing any par- 
ticular act Induce us to imitate the pictured 
actions. The advertisement reproduced as 



Making Suggestions Effective 171 

Figure 16 creates in the mind of the reader a 
tendency or even a desire to imitate the de- 
picted action. 

We imitate most readily those whom we look 
up to as authorities or those who are our peers 
and belong to our social class. This fact is 
taken advantage of by presenting pictures of 
individuals having the appearance of authority 
in the field of the advertised commodity. At 
the same time, the individuals of authority are 
represented as belonging to the social class of 
the possible customers. The reproduced ad- 
vertisement of Firestone tires (Figure 17) is 
cleverly constructed to utilize this tendency. 
The men who should know tires are the dealers, 
the automobile owners, and chauffeurs. These 
men seem to recommend these tires enthu- 
siastically. Furthermore, these men are of the 
social classes that purchase tires. 

The purchaser of a mop is ordinarily either 
the wife or the maid. These are also the per- 
sons whose judgment of a mop is of most value. 
In exploiting a mop it is important to represent 
the ideal wife as approving it if it is to be sold 
to wives. However, if it is to be sold upon the 
recommendations of maids it is important that 
the ideal maid should be represented as using 






■■* 

t ; if, 






h'^: 

I 



■-■» 



4 






h 



>^[ 



.',.1* 



ilil* 



Jll 






' I 



I 



t 



■ 



172 Influencing Men in Business 

and approving the mop. The advertisers of 
the 0-Cedar mop solved this problem in a very 
clever way. In their advertising they represent 
their mop as being used with great approval by 
an individual that may be interpreted equally 
well as a wife or as a maid (Figure 18). 



III. Suggestion Excludes Comparison and 
Criticism 

If I am trying to persuade you by means of 
suggestion, then I must see to it that no thought 
of other possible lines of action should enter 
your mind. I must not mention competitors 
nor present my commodity in such a way that 
you would be likely to think of other possible 
lines of action. Also in presenting to you my 
line of goods I must not compel you to make a 
choice between different classes of goods which 
I offer. 

According to this principle in persuading 
men the agent avoids all reference to competi- 
tors and the salesman attempts to hold your 
attention down to one class of goods at a time. 
Salesrooms are sometimes so constructed that 
customers can see none of the goods except as 
they are presented by the salesman. The sales- 



I 




of 

Baking Beans 



II 



Culinary art combined with science has revo- 
lutionized Baked Beans. The dish of today, 
as baked by Van Camp, is a new creation. 

No home or hotel can produce anything like it The 
only way to get Beans like these is to let us bake them 
for you. 





m 



Pork&Beans ?^S^^^ 



AUo Baktd Without th* Saw 

10, 15 and 20 Cents Per Can 






Figure 15 






INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 





t 



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172 Influencing Men in Business 

and approving the mop. The advertisers of 
the 0-Cedar mop solved this problem in a very 
clever way. In their advertising they represent 
their mop as being used with great approval by 
an individual that may be interpreted equally 
well as a wife or as a maid (Figure 18). 



III. Suggestion Excludes Comparison and 
Criticism 

If I am trying to persuade you by means of 
suggestion, then I must see to it that no thought 
of other possible lines of action should enter 
your mind. I must not mention competitors 
nor present my commodity in such a way that 
you would be likely to think of other possible 
lines of action. Also in presenting to you my 
line of goods I must not compel you to make a 
choice between different classes of goods which 
I offer. 

According to this principle In persuading 
men the agent avoids all reference to competi- 
tors and the salesman attempts to hold your 
attention down to one class of goods at a time. 
Salesrooms are sometimes so constructed that 
customers can see none of the goods except as 
they are presented by the salesman. The sales- 




Baking Beans 



Culinary art combined with science has revo- 
lutionized Baked Beans. The dish of today, 
as baked by Van Camp, is a new creation. 

No home or hotel can produce anything like it. The 
only way to get Beans like these is to let us bake them 
for you. 






PorkaBeans ^^^^ITcSL 

Alto B*tk*d Without thm Sauc* 

10. 15 and 20 Cents Per Can 



Figure 15 



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*'Thc 'Emery' label is a 
certificate of character for 
a shirt: represents thirty- 
five years* shirt-making 
experience; stands for a 
manufacturer of national 
fame; means unsurpass- 
able workmanship, finish 
and style." 



"The 'Emery' Nek-ban- 
tab saves my time of 
mornings — opens the 
starched-up collar but- 
ton pocket and lets 
me insert the button 
in a jifTy. Only the 
'Emer/ shirt has this 
convenience." 



"The 'Emery* Guaranty 
Bond (with each slurt) 
makes 'Emery' shirts a 
safe investment, whether 
bought singly or by half- 
dozens. Fit, color and 
wear are Gaaranteed. If an 
'Emery' shirt goes wrong 
the dealer replaces it.'* 



It pays to look for (^K0^ when you buy shirts. Price $1.50 up. 
Your dealer can supply you. Or we will send name of dealer who 
will, together with Catalog of Emery _ Shirts from which .to select. 



Write us for "Ethics of a Gentleman's DrestJ* 



W. M. STEPPACHER & BRO., Inc., 



Philadelphia 



Offices also — New York, Chicago, St. Louis 



Figure 16 



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Figure 17 



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'^''•WMiHiX^M^if^'. ■ ' - 



Like A Fairy's Wand! 

The New, Improved. AdjusiaUe 

Clianges Dull. Lifeless Floors To 
Mirror-Like Lustre and Brightness 

Miss O-Cedar is the good fairy who keeps more 
than two million homes clean, bright and cheer- 
ful. One sweep of her wand (an 0-Cedar Mop) 
and dull, dingy floors or woodwork spring into 
scintillating brightness, with every beautiful, 
delicate detail of their grain revealed. 

Cleans as It Polishes 

Sold by all druggists, gro- / 

cers, hardware and de- 
partment stores. Either 
style, round or tri- 
angular, in two 
sizes at 



/ 



/ 



/ 



and 
S1.25 



/ 







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^^^ 















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..-...-W'W&U. 



This New, Convenient 
Handy Handle Hin^e** 

IS now a part of every 0-Cedar Polish Mop 
and makes it perfectly adjustable. 

Ckannell Chemical Co.. Chica^ -Toronto-bndon-Berlin 



Figure 18 



Making Sugigestions Effective 177 

man makes the most of this unique opportunity 
and presents to the customer a single line of 
goods and gets a decision on that. This speci- 
men of the goods is then removed from sight 
and another presented, but, so far as prac- 
ticable, the customer is not allowed to have two 
possible choices before him at once. This 
method has proved very successful. 

We are more inclined to question a statement] 
expressed in direct language than we are the] 
same statement if expressed indirectly or ij 
figurative language. That is to say, figurativi 
and indirect language increases suggestibility/ 
This fact Is taken advantage of In many of thfe 
most successful attempts to influence men of 
which we have record. Mark Antony's oration 
at Caesar's funeral, as presented by Shakes- 
speare. Is one of the most masterly uses of in- 
direct and figurative language in stirring men to 
action. This form of expression takes us off 
our guard and keeps us from criticizing what Is 
said. In fact, the speaker does not seem to 
assert anything which could be criticized, but 
he leads us to think things which would be 
criticized and would lead to antagonism if 
asserted directly. This figurative and Indirect 
form of language is thus able to instil in us the 



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178 Influencing Men in Business 

desired ideas without giving us any occasion to 
question what has been said. 

In some instances the name of a commodity 
suggests Indirectly a superior quality. As ex- 
amples of this should be cited Cream of Wheat, 
Ivory, White Rock, Sunklst, etc. These names 
suggest a quality In such a clever way that It can 
scarcely be questioned. 

A spirit of frankness, openness, and confi- 
dence allays suspicion and Increases suggesti- 
bility. The man who has confidence In himself 
and his wares has an easy battle with the com- 
petitor who lacks self-confidence and who Is not 
sure of the value of his proposition. No man 
can hope for respect from others unless he has 
It for himself; he can not readily win others to 
his cause unless he has first convinced himself. 
No man can do himself justice In a calling which 
makes him feel apologetic, and neither can he 
successfully advocate a cause for which he feels 
called upon to apologize. The remarkable 
effectiveness of such phrases as **The kind youUl 
eventually buy,'' Is to be found In this spirit of 
unbounded confidence which the promoter dis- 
plays In his commodity. 

A critical audience can not be moved by sug- 
gestion. Its confidence must first be secured. 



Making Suggestions Effective 179 

The task of the advertiser Is made difficult be- 
cause of the suspicion with which his copy is 
received. The public are not Inherently sus- 
picious but have been made so because of their 
experience with advertisers. The first great 
American advertiser was P. T. Barnum. He 
worked on the theory that the American public 
liked to be humbugged. He gave them what 
he thought they wanted. The second great 
epoch In American advertising was the exploi- 
tation of the worthless and even harmful patent 
medicines. A third campaign that should be 
recognized Is the publicity of the fakers who 
still continue to rob the American public of 
millions of dollars annually. P. T. Barnum, 
the patent medicines, and the fakers have cre- 
ated general suspicion toward all advertise- 
ments. The advertisers* great task Is to 
counteract this baneful Influence. They are suc- 
ceeding In this task most creditably. In our 
best publications all advertising firms as well as 
all copy received are scrutinized with great 
care. Almost a score of states and several 
large cities have recently passed laws against 
fraudulent advertisements. Satisfaction guar- 
anteed, goods sent on approval, money back at 
your request, and other related policies are 



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1 80 Influencing Men in Business 

rapidly coming into vogue. If by the united 
efforts of the advertisers of America suspicion 
could be removed from the purchasing public, 
suggestion would become the great method of 
exploiting merchandise, and the present high 
cost of distribution would be materially re- 
duced. 



IV. SiJggestion Secures Direct Response 
Without Delay 

• 

In order that the response may be carried 
out by suggestion, everything must be done to 
make such response as easy as possible. We 
must plan that the desired step shall not be of 
such a nature that it would be likely to cause 
hesitation. Thus in an advertisement in which 
suggestion is depended upon, the reader should 
be called upon to do something which is simple 
and easy. Many firms find it wise to supply the 
coupon in connection with the advertisement, so 
that the reader may fill it out and mail it at 
once. Other firms offer samples, catalogues, or 
demonstrations upon request; goods are sent 
C. 0. D., or charged, or to be paid for upon 
approval, or upon the promise of money back 
if not satisfactory. These devices are wonder- 









Making Suggestions Effective 181 

fully successful in begetting action immediately 
following the suggestion. 

Great ingenuity is exercised by some general 



Quick Delivery Coupon Brings 
The OKver 



T3rpewriter 

Sevente^i Coits 
a Day! 

*Fhw coupofi'On-wheeU will'ruBft the OUvei 
Typewriter to any poihc in the States^ It's our 
long-distance Quick Delivery Service. losert your 
name and addraa, atUch check or draft for $15 
and send it on. Tht Oliver Typewriter will be de> 
livered in record4>icakiag time, in perfect working 
order. Yon o^n pay tMilanoe monthly at the rate, 
of seventeen cent* ^ day, whilt you an MWf I**,' 
typewrilert 




"•1 

<Nicfc IM(f«y C«v« «i (M» Haab 

ctoMd pluM Ritd III M nirtm, ^ „^ Mdk. M 
tgrw 10 «■•• 17 c*MS a dar Mi4 MM h^MM. ■>. 



•**••••••••••••••••••• 

***•••••• ••'••••••••••• 




OLIVJCR 

/»/ Standard Vitibtt Writfr 

Our army of Oliver agents, over ts.ooo^ronf^ 
cannot possibly meet personally all who wish to 
avail themselves of this Seventeen-Onts-a-Day' 
Offer. We print this coupon to meet the emergency^ 
It is the Seventeen-Cents^-I^y Selling Flan re-, 
duced to its simple^ formiv ~~^ 



^e coupon extends the advantages of this 
tremendously popular plats to tha'nwst remote 
points of this or any other countfjr. It cuts all 
-fed tape"— does away with delay— places the 
worid's best fioo typewriter on your desk, for 
•Seventeen Cents a Day. Put your name on the 
coupon now and we will ship your Oliver. 

The Oliver Typewtittr b mad^ of the most 
.lejqiensivt materials employed in .typewriter 000- 
^•tructbn. It is built with infinity care, by highly 
^killed, highly paid, workmen 

, It k)oks easy for see our acres et special madib- 
try. directed by trained brains and hands, turn 
Cons of m^tat into trainloads of typewriteru 

But bfck of this vast equipment, back of the 
great ofganizatioa, back of the big expenditure— 
overtkadowini all im importance— ia THE BIG 
IDEA that ^ods expression in this marvelous writ* 
ing machioeJ 



Figure 19 

distributers in suggesting immediate action as 
well as in controlling the conditions to make the 
suggested action easy of execution. Thus in 



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182 Influencing Men in Business 

the reproduced advertisement of the Oliver 
typewriter (Figure 19) the suggestion to action 
is given by the coupon in the form of an auto- 
mobile. The ease of response and the prompt- 
ness of delivery are also suggested by the sen- 
tence, "Quick delivery coupon brings the Oliver 
typewriter for seventeen cents a day !" 

The proprietor of a large railroad lunch 
counter inaugurated the policy of serving two 
sandwiches when but one was ordered. The 
customer was in no way obliged to eat and pay 
for the second sandwich, but when it was before 
him the suggestion to accept it was so strong 
and It was so easy to do so that the sale of 
sandwiches was greatly increased. 

After the salesman has properly presented 
his offerings, he is in a position to say, "Now 
that you fully appreciate my goods how large 
an order shall I write out for you ?" The ad- 
vertisement closes with an appeal to send for 
circular, to write for demonstration, or to call 
at once to inspect the goods. These means to 
help you to decide and to execute your decision 
are quite essential since procrastination is so 
likely to keep you from doing the thing which 
you were just on the point of doing. 

In purchasing advertised goods (mail-order 



Making Suggestions Effective 183 

advertising particularly) there is usually no 
reason why you should place your order now 
rather than some hours or days later. Every 
student of industrial history knows that in the 
past it has usually been true that the person who 
placed his orders earliest secured the best 
goods. But in advertised goods all orders must 
be filled with goods of uniform quality. 

In personal forms of selling the presence of 
the seller fixes the moment at which the buyer 
could most conveniently make his purchases. 
But when the seller is the printed page appear- 
ing regularly, there is no particularly appro- 
priate time for action. This is one of the 
fundamental inherent weaknesses of most forms 
of advertising and is an obvious cause in in- 
creasing and making habitual this natural ten- 
dency to procrastinate. If we procrastinate 
purchasing advertised goods till a more con- 
venient season, the convenient season may never 
come. 

A short time ago I went, toward evening, 
from Evanston to Chicago. On the way my 
eye caught sight of a street-car card containing 
the following sentence : "Why not take supper 
at Henrici's to-night?'* The definiteness of the 
question got the better of me. I went to Hen- 



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184 Influencing Men in Business 

rici's for supper that evening, although I had 
not intended to till I read the street-car card. 
If the sentence had read, *'Try a supper at 
Henrici's" — it would not have been effective 
with me for that night — I would have pro- 
crastinated. 

During the months of October, November, 
and December, certain magazines make especial 
efforts to secure new subscribers. One year's 
subscription received in October is good for 15 
months; received in November, good for 14 
months; and received in December, good for 
13 months. Such appeals are sufficient to over- 
come the tendency to procrastinate in many 
instances. 

Offers which are advertised as good till a 
particular date, are sometimes accepted by more 
persons than would have accepted if the offer 
had had no time limit. 

All these schemes to secure action by limit- 
ing the time within which an action may take 
place have been successful in particular in- 
stances, but they are not subject to general 
application in any way. 

The salesman who depends upon the power 
of suggestion presents the order blank at the 
psychological moment, and, without taking time 



Making Suggestions Effective 185 

to consider, the customer signs for his orders. 

* The agent completes his suggestion by skilfully 
putting the question which leads to the order. 
He does not say, ''Will you take the policy?" 
but, **Shall I make it for ten thousand?" The 
agent may also effectively put the question in 

.some such form as tJie following: **Now that 
you understand the nature of our policy, do you 
think your wife would be sufficiently protected 
by a policy of fifty thousand?"; "Realizing as 
you do the call which may reasonably be ex- 
pected for the goods, do you think one car load 
will be sufficient to supply the demand?" When 
the customer has not yet decided to make the 
purchase his decision is sometimes forced by 
such suggestive questions as, "Shall I send it, or 
will you take it with you?"; "Shall I charge it, 
or do you prefer to pay cash?"; "At what hour 
would it be convenient to have it delivered at 
your office?" Unless these suggestive questions 
are put by the right person and at the right time 
they are absolutely worthless. When properly 
used they are most effective. 

in persuading men we wish to depend upon 



the working of suggestion we must not only 
disarm them of suspicion, but we must make 
response easy and suggest definitely the nature 



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186 Influencing Men in Business 

of the response and the time at which the act 
should take place. The degree to which we 
accomplish this is the measure of our skill m 
carrying suggestion to a happy conclusion. 



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Date Due 




APR 2 6 1994 







J/253 



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COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY L 





BRARIES 



0041413660 




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END OF 
TITLE 



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